Skip to main content

Full text of "Etruscan Bologna: a study"

See other formats











Ross:    1866-7 






A     STUDY. 







\A  II    tights     reserved.] 

ttraam  (fflnfr, 


Nov.  i,  1875. 


Be  pleased  to  consider  this  little  volume 
a  sign  tJtat  the  Wanderer  in  Bologna  has  not 
forgotten  your  gracious  and  graceful  hospitality, 
and  believe  me 

Ever  yours  sincerely, 




I  NEED  hardly  say  that  this  little  volume  offers  no 
novelty  beyond  introducing  to  the  English  reader 
the  valuable  results  of  Etruskische  Forschungen  in 
modern  Italy.  It  can  hardly  be  termed  uncalled 
for.  The  discovery  of  the  Bolognese  Certosa  which 
took  place  some  six  years  ago,  requires,  for  study, 
reference  to  a  number  of  pamphlets  and  scattered 
letters,  which  we  must  not  expect  to  see  in  our 
libraries.  Other  '  finds,'  noticed  in  '  Etruscan 
Bologna,'  are  even  less  accessible ;  and  even  my 
own  list  is  not  quite  complete. 

Like  the  Gipsy  dialect,  the  Etruscan  tongue  has 
fascinated  a  host  of  scholars.  The  latest  result  is 
a  belief  that  in  it  '  we  have  a  waif  of  one  of  those 
many  extinct  families  of  speech  which  have  gone  to 

viii  PREFACE. 

build  up  the  languages  of  the  present  world '  (Sayce). 
For  the  moment  we  can  only  say  that  the  problems 
of  its  origin  and  its  position  have  not  been  solved  ; 
that  some  Italic  vocables  have  been  detected,  or 
rather  guessed,  and  that  there  are,  perhaps,  a  few 
'  Turanian  affinities,'  possibly  derived  from  Finnish, 
and  pointing,  haply,  to  an  age  when  the  Aryan 
limits  were  not  definitively  laid  down.  Some  day, 
as  linguistic  science  is  in  despair,  we  may  bring  to 
light  a  long  bilingual  inscription,  that  will  prove  a 
veritable  Rosetta  Stone.  Hitherto,  the  only  keys 
applied  to  the  ethnology  of  the  mysterious  race, 
which  taught  Rome  her  arts  and  arms,  have  been 
'  glottology '  and  comparative  philology,  while  not 
a  little  violence  has  accompanied  the  application. 
In  this  volume,  however,  we  shall  find  Professor 
Calori,  to  mention  no  others,  searching  the  sepul- 
chres, and  supplementing  linguistic  by  craniological 
and  other  physiological  studies. 

Finally,  '  Etruscan  Bologna '  attempts  for  the 
first  time  to  describe  the  North-Eastern,  which  may 
be  the  eldest,  Etrurian  Confederation,  while  the 


works  of  Dennis  and  other  notable  English  autho- 
rities treat  mainly,  if  not  only,  of  Middle  Etruria, 
almost  corresponding  with  modern  Tuscany. 

I  must  again  conclude  with  my  old  apology 
for  minor  sins  of  omission  and  commission — the 
'  single  revise  '  excuse. 

March  4,  1876. 





I.  NEW  BOLOGNA           .....  3 

II.  OLD  BOLOGNA       .            .            .            .  14 


BOLOGNA.  .  .  .  .  .21 



I.  VARIOUS  FINDS  .  .  .  .  -79 



IV.  CONCLUSIONS  .  .  .  .  .  .     137 




I.  THE  ETRUSCAN  MAN  ....     149 

II.  THE  ETRUSCAN  MAN  (continued]  .  .                  .     163 

III.  CRANIOLOGY   .            .            .  .            .            .     175 

IV.  PROFESSOR  CALORI           .            .  .            .      .     187 

V.  THE  ETRUSCAN  LANGUAGE    .  .            .            .212 


VI.  INSCRIPTIONS         .            .            .  .            .           233 

VII.  MODERN  BOLOGNESE  TONGUE  .            .            .     242 

APPENDIX           .            .            .            .  .            .           263 

INDEX           .            .            .            .  .            ,            .     271 


REMAINS  OF  CENTRAL  ITALY  .  .     To  face  Title 


Page  71,  line  28,  for  M.  F.  Max  Muller's  theory,   read  M.  F.  Max 

Miiller  himself 

,,   189,  line  23,  for  Dion  Halicarnassus,  raw?  Dion.  Halicarnassius 
,,  258,  line  19,  for  So.  n'  andato,  read  El  xe  anda 

Etruscan  Bologna 




I.  THE  ETRUSCAN  MAN  ....     149 

II.  THE  ETRUSCAN  MAN  (continued]  .  .  .      .     163 



PART   I. 

'  Le  moindre  debris  echappe  des  mines  de  Pantiquite  nous  en  apprend 
plus  que  tous  les  livres ' 




I  PROPOSE  to  write  a  study  of  the  old  '  House  of 
Aucnus,'  the  venerable  ex-capital  of  Northern 
Etruria,  promising  never  to  borrow  from  the  guide- 
books, and  premising  that  the  sooner  they  borrow 
from  me  the  better  for  them.  Not  a  line  concerning 
the  ancient  city  of  Felsina,  lately  brought  to  light, 
appears  in  Murray  (1869);  and  right  few  in  Bae- 
deker (1873).  Travellers,  therefore,  daily  pass 
through  without  even  hearing  of  our  many  admirable 
collections  of  archaeology,  and  without  seeing  that 
excavations  are  being  pushed  on  with  exemplary 
vigour.  The  stranger-herd  visits  the  Art-galleries, 
asks  after  the  Sta.  Cecilia  of  Raffaele  and  the 
S.  Sebastian  of  Francesco  Raibolini,  '  detto  il 
Francia ; '  it  stands  wondering  under  the  shadow 
of  La  Garisenda,  the  most  towering  of  the  leaning 
towers  ;  it  admires  the  long  miles  of  arcades  and — 
straightway  it  is  gone.  Still  '  Bononia  docet,'  and 

B  2 

4  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

we  students  can  now  learn  from  her  the  tale  of  her 
older  world. 

And  first  of  the  site.  The  rich  plains  of  Lom- 
bardy  to  the  north-west,  and  the  sub-Alpine  mari- 
time lowlands  of  Friuli  and  Venice  to  the  north-east, 
Circumpadane  Etruria  forming  the  thigh-piece  of 
the  Italian  boot,  here  abut  southwards  upon  the 
Apennines,  the  mighty  suture  which,  immediately 
north  of  Genoa,  sweeping  from  west  to  east,  gradu- 
ally assumes  a  south-eastern  trend.  Were  I  speak- 
ing geographically  I  should  say  that  they  begin 
in  southernmost  Italy,  bend  round  the  north-west 
limit,  form  the  Alps,  bifurcate  at  the  great  European 
nucleus  of  Switzerland,  where  they  send  off  a 
branch  to  form  the  Rheingau  ;  and,  after  becoming 
the  Dinarians,  they  terminate  in  Greece,  the  whole 
being  shaped  like  an  elongated  arch  or  a  tuning- 
fork.  The  great  steppe  of  Upper  Italy  is  mostly 
composed  of  riverine  valleys,  feeding  the  Adriatic 
Gulf ;  the  main  trunks,  commencing  with  the  eastern- 
most, where  Italy  geographically  begins,  being  the 
Isonzo,  Tagliamento,  Livenza  and  Piave,  the  Bacchi- 
glione  and  Brenta  of  Padua,  the  Adige  or  Etsch, 
the  network  of  the  Po  Proper,  and  the  Po  di  Pri- 
maro  alias  the  Reno.  Many  of  these  historical 


streams  run,  it  is  well  known,  upon  planes  several 
feet  higher  than  the  adjacent  lands  ;  and  the  only 
tunnel  between  the  Duchy  of  Gorizia  (Go'rz)  and 
Bologna  is  that  pierced  through  a  vein  of  the 
extinct  Euganean  volcanoes  (Colli  Euganei}  by  the 
ex-Duke  of  Modena  :  like  many  an  English  gentle- 
man of  the  old  school,  he  would  not  allow  his  senses 
and  his  feelings  to  be  wounded  by  the  '  destruction 
of  all  feudalism.' 

Near  the  south-western  extremity  of  this  noble 
prairie  lies  BOLOGNA,  with  her  head  resting  upon 
the  gentle  slopes  which  represent  the  foot-hills  of  the 
Apennines,  and  with  her  feet  extended  towards  the 
broad,  fat  Reno  Valley.  Her  site  is  in  the  heart  of 
the  temperates  ;  and,  though  she  complains  of  wintry 
cold  and  summery  heat,  she  is  amply  blessed  by 
'  Nature  and  Nurture.'  There  is  nothing  bad  in 
Bologna  but  the  water,  which,  hardened  by  the 
dissolution  of  calcareous  rocks,  chaps  the  skin  and 
offends  the  internals.  Presently,  however,  the  old 
Roman  aqueduct  will  flow  once  more,  and  the  one 
real  nuisance  will  be  effectually  abated.1  Nothing 
will  then  remain  but  to  cheapen  and  to  improve  the 

1  See  Analisi  di  alcune  acque  potabili  della  Cittd.  di  Bologna,  by 
Cav.  Domenico  Santagata,  1872. 

6  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

post-office — a  civilized  instrument  which  sadly  wants 
refurbishing  throughout  Italy. 

The  characteristics  of  Bologna  are  the  Arcade 
and  the  Leaning  Tower.  The  former  is  of  every  age 
and  shape ;  we  even  find  the  rude  wooden  archi- 
traves and  the  post  props — a  palpable  survival  of 
the  Etruscan  temple  which  we  shall  visit  at  Marza- 
botto.  The  finished  arch  resting  upon  the  classical 
column  also  dates  from  the  days  when  it  was  appa- 
rently first  employed,  namely,  in  the  Diocletianian 
Palace  at  Spalato.  The  result  is  that  of  an  English 
Chester  and  a  Switzer  Bern,  made  artistic  and 
beautiful,  combined  with  the  timber  appurtenances 
of  Tours — the  most  mediaeval  amid  civilised  French 
cities.  Of  the  hundred  towers  lately  described  by 
the  learned  and  laborious  Senator  Count  Giovanni 
Gozzadini,1  many  if  not  most  of  them  are  distinctly 
out  of  the  perpendicular.  This  is  not  the  case  in  the 
adjoining  cities  ;  and  I  would  explain  the  fact  by  the 
ground  having  been  so  much  worked  by  successive 
races  and  generations  of  men.  All  are  mere  defor- 
mities, rickety  minarets,  which,  as  the  courses  of 

1  Delle  Torri  gentilizie  di  Bologna  e  delle  famiglie  alle  quali 
prima  appartennerono :  Studii,  Bologna,  1874,  with  plates.  The 
large  8vo.  is  considered  the  most  interesting  of  Count  Gozzadini's 
twenty-four  publications. 


masonry  show,  were  begotten  to  be  vertical.  The 
numerous  palaces  of  brick,  without  and  with  stone 
dressings,  show  that  the  master-hand  of  Palladio, 
who  adorned  Vicenza  with  the  meanest  of  material, 
has  passed  here  as  at  Milan  ;  and  suggests  that 
New  London  need  not  go  to  Scotland  for  her 
granite — a  material  to  be  used  sparingly,  as  it  '  kills ' 
all  its  neighbours.  The  '  Palazzo '  of  the  humblest 
noble  is  vast  enough  to  contain  two  of  the  largest 
boxes  that  poor  Belgravia  can  boast ;  and  the  in- 
clined planes  of  staircase,  evidently  made  for  the 
comfort  and  convenience  of  the  grandee's  destrier, 
contrast  wonderfully  with  the  companion-ladder  of 
masonry  which,  rodded  and  carpetted.  suffices 
between  Teuton-land  and  Scandinavia  for  the 
millionaire  of  the  North. 

These  are  features  of  a  bygone  day,  yet 
Bologna  is  not  without  her  '  modern  improvements.' 
The  Via  Miola,  lately  repaired,  is  one  of  the 
handsomest  and  the  most  striking  in  the  whole 
peninsula.  The  '  Seliciata '  (slab-pavement)  is  gradu- 
ally extending,  and,  where  the  handsome  equipages 
pass,  flag-bands  have  been  let  into  the  torturing 
cobble-stones.  The  thoroughfares  have  changed 
their  saintly  names  for  those  of  modern  patriots ; 
and  the  Strada  di  S.  Felice  can  hardly  complain  that 

8  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

it  has  become  '  Ugo  Bassi.'     Clubs  abound  ;  besides 
the  Societa  Felsinea  and  the  Domino  Club,  the  latter 
on  the  small  scale  and  the  exclusive  system  which 
makes  the  reputation  of  the  Marlborough,  there  is 
also,  under  the  presidency  of  Count  F.   Carega  di 
Muricci,    the    Club    Alpino   dell'    Emilia   (or    della 
Romagna),   a  section  of  the   Italiano  whose  head- 
quarters are  at  Turin.1     There  are  two  chief  news- 
papers,  the  Monitore  and  the  Patria,  and  a  handy 
Italian  guide-book.2     The  shops  are  tolerable,  and 
the  hotels  are  new,  and  upon  a  large  scale.     The 
trotting  horse  has  been  naturalised  ;  the  public  com- 
missionnaire  is  firmly  established  ;  and  the  policeman, 
has,  like  his  brother  of  Milan,  confessedly  borrowed 
a  uniform  from  the  London  '  Peeler.'    Still,  the  heart 
of  the  city,  the   great  square,  is   essentially   media 
evo,  as  when  she   adopted   her  famous  watchword 
'  Libertas. '      Huge  umbrellas,  like  those  manufac- 
tured   in    England   for    the    Court    of    murderous 
Dahome,    shelter    the   buxom    market-women,    the 
lineal  descendants  of  the  Umbrians  and  the  Etrus- 

1  An  energetic  member,  Signer  F.  Paventi,was  kind  enough  to  give 
me  its  first  publication. 

-  Guida  di  Bologna  e  suoi  dintorni  del  Cav.  Michelangelo  Gua- 
landi.  Quarta  Edizione,  interamente  rifusa  dall'  Autore.  Bologna  : 
Nicola  Zanichelli,  1875. 


cans ;  and  King  Hensius,  after  a  lapse  of  five 
centuries,  would  find  little  difficulty  in  recognising 
the  view  from  his  prison  windows.  The  statue  of 
Neptune  (so  out  of  place  in  an  inland  city)  stands 
as  it  stood  in  A.D.  1564.  I  would  leave  it  there, 
although  statues  in  the  open  air  appear  some- 
what like  a  tree  in  a  drawing-room  ;  but  I  would 
entirely  abolish  the  boys  who  are  dangling  dolphins 
by  the  tail,  and  the  handsome  feminine  monsters  who 
are  practising  a  very  peculiar  operation.  If  you 
wish  to  see  the  Contadini,  go  on  Saturday  morning  to 
the  section  of  the  main  street  laid  off  by  hand-rails  ; 
it  is  a  fine,  tall,  and  sturdy  race,  which  still  affects 
the  pastrano,  or  brigand  cloak  of  murret-coloured 
wool  or  of  mezza-lana  (half-cotton),  and  the  furs 
which  some  day  will  be  more  generally  adopted  in 

The  result  of  this  intimate  blending  of  the 
mediaeval  with  the  modern  soon  makes  itself  felt. 
There  is  a  something  in  the  presence  of  Bologna 
that  softens  the  soul ;  a  venerable  aspect  appeal- 
ing to  sentiments  which  men  do  not  wear  upon 
the  sleeve ;  a  solemnity  of  vast  half-ruined  hall, 
and  of  immense  deserted  arcade  ;  a  pathetic  vista  of 
unfinished  church  and  closed  palace,  relics  of  the 

io  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

poetical  Past  which  have  projected  themselves  into 
the  prosaic  Present.  You  learn  with  pleasure  that 
you  can  lose  your  way  in  the  long,  labyrinthine 
streets  and  alleys,  wynds  and  closes — such  contrasts 
with  the  painful  rectangular  regularity  of  Mann- 
heim, New  York,  and  Buenos  Ayres.  The  artistic 
Greeks  laid  out  straight  lines  of  intersecting  tho- 
roughfare ;  but  they  had  aesthetic  reasons  for  the 
plan  which  led  to  the  central  temple;  and  they 
applied  it  to  their  miniature  official  towns,  where 
the  square  and  ritualistic  form,  oriented  to  the  four 
cardinal  points,  must  have  compared  pleasantly 
with  the  large  irregular  suburbs  beyond  the  walls. 
We  moderns  have  adopted  it  and,  adapting  it  to 
a  huge  scale,  we  have  produced  not  a  copy  but  a 
caricature.  Briefly  to  describe  the  effect  of  the 
aristocratic  old  city,  the  '  moral  capital  of  the 
Emilia,'  you  have  only  to  remember  that  of  Man- 
chester or  of  Birmingham,  and  to  conjure  up  into 
imagination  the  clear  contrary.  The  'centre  of 
trade'  may  have  a  poetry  of  its  own,  but  it  is 
certainly  not  '  sensuous '  as  Milton  advises ;  and 
here  we  have  a  mediaeval  castle  dwarfing  the  mass 
of  bran-new  semi-detached  villas. 

The  citizens  and  peasantry  of  Bologna  are  one 


of  the  finest  of  Italian  races,  distinguished  not  only 
for  physique,  but  by  good  fighting  qualities,  by  a 
peculiar  vivacity  of  mind  (sveltezza  d1  ingenio)  and 
by  a  fund  of  broad  humour  which  is  made  broader 
by  the  '  burr '  of  their  peculiar  dialect  Yet  within 
the  walls  all  speak  Italian,  and  the  same  is  the  case 
with  the  '  contadini,'  especially  near  the  Tuscan 

After  what  we  have  heard  about  Papal  misrule 
and  want  of  progress,  we  might  expect  at  Bologna, 
which  is  essentially  Roman,  a  portentous  display  of 
ignorance,  superstition,  and  violence.  It  is  only  fair 
to  own  that  the  reverse  is  notably  the  fact,  and 
that  Bologna  still  justifies  her  motto  '  Libertas.'  I 
can  hardly  wonder  that  there  are  educated  men 
who  regret  the  change  to  '  Eleutheromania '  and 
'  Italiomania.' 

The  section  called  '  Society '  is  exceptional  as 
the  aspect  of  their  home.  The  effects  of  the  media 
are  that  universal  civility  and  '  exquisite  amenity ' 
which  have  not  been  unnoticed  by  northern  travel- 
lers. It  is,  in  fact,  'a  rare  land  of  courtesy,'  an 
uncorrupted  Tuscany.  Many  families  date  from 
the  Middle  Ages,  when  the  city  was  ruled  by  a 
Governor  and  forty  Senators,  Aristos  who  utterly 

12  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

scouted  the  idea  of  a  '  Lower  house/  and — aristocracy 
is  a  rule  of  honour.  Throughout  Italy  the  richard 
is  for  the  most  part  a  thrifty,  if  not  a  penurious, 
personage,  who  lives  hard  the  wrong  way,  and  who 
often,  like  the  famous  bishop, 

Will  die  from  want  of  what  he  has. 

At    Bologna    parsimony  is   the    exception.       The 
wealthy   nobles   keep  large    establishments  ;    their 
equipages  and  liveries  would  ornament  a  capital  ; 
and   they   do    not   dine  in   secret — a   rare   circum- 
stance in  the  '  bel  paese.'     For  their  hospitality  the 
Anthropological  Congress  of  1871  can  answer  ;  all 
who    had    any    claim    upon    their   attention   were 
received   with  open  arms.      This  is  probably   due 
to  the  fact  that   Bologna  has  hitherto  escaped  the 
peine  forte  et  dure  of  the  foreign  colony  ;  only  two 
English  families,  two  French,  and  a  few  of  Spanish 
blood   appear   amongst   the   sixty   or   seventy  that 
represent  the  Upper  Ten,  and  all  of  them  are  ac- 
quisitions.     The   same   cannot   be   said   of  Rome, 
Florence,  and  Naples,  where,  naturally  enough,  the 
stranger  is  excluded  till  he  has  passed  a  long  and 
a  somewhat  rigid  probation.     The  university  at  the 
'  Mater  Studiorum,'  so  famed  for  Professors  of  both 
sexes,  still  enjoys  a  green  old  age  ;  and  this  society 


does  not  characterise  anything  beyond  and  above 
chaff  and  chit-chat  as  una  seccatura — a  '  devilish 
good  word/  said  Byron,  but  the  most  terrible  in  the 
neo- Latin  vocabulary.  They  remember 

The  all  Etruscan  three — 
Dante  and  Petrarch,  and  scarce  less  they 
The  Bard  of  Prose,  creative  spirit  !  he 
Of  the  Hundred  Tales  of  Love  ; 

and  they  do  not  forget  that  '  honneur  oblige?    Hence 


we  explain  the  saying  that  you  are  sure  of  returning 
to  Bologna;  and  thus  we  account  for  the  feeling 
that  removal  to  the  nearest  thriving  port,  out  of 
Italy,  is  a  real  lapse  from  grace.  These  venerable 
civilisations  have  their  peculiar  cachet ;  an  aroma 
like  that  of  wine  stored  long  in  the  cellar — the 
flavour  is  independent  of  instruction  or  education, 
in  the  limited  sense  of  the  words,  and,  like  constitu- 
tionalism, it  must  be  a  growth,  not  a  graft.  Briefly, 
even  the  English  bourgeois  begins  to  realise  at 
Bologna  the  full  sense  and  significance  of  '  Northern 
Barbarian ; '  and,  perhaps,  he  remembers  a  fine 
specimen  of  the  British  Philistine,  Dr.  Johnson. 

14  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 



BUT  Bologna  must  not  seduce  us  with  her  modern 
attractions  ;  we  have  no  time  to  dwell  on  the  me- 
mories of  Michelangelo  and  Francia,  the  Caraccis 
and  Domenichino,  Galvani,  Mezzofanti,  and  Achille 
Marozzo,  the  creator  of  our  modern  Art  of  Arms. 
We  come  here  to  inspect  the  vestiges  of  a  day  long 
gone  by,  to  seek  with  Thucydides,  the  history  of 
the  people  in  its  sepulchres,  to  detect  under  the 
earth  which  covers  the  Etruscan  tombs  the  secrets 
of  their  civilisation.  The  researches  which  began 
systematically  in  1856  have  made  study  an  easy 
matter.  Things  have  greatly  changed  since  Des- 
Vergers  could  write  of  Pelasgian  Spina,  Atria,  and 
other  Circumpadane  cities  :  '  Elles  ont  laisse  bien 
peu  de  traces  dans  le  souvenir  des  hommes,  et  les 
traces  sont  si  legeres  qu'elles  n'ont  plus  ni  forme 
ni  couleur.'  Between  1825-7  Zecchi  was  able 
to  issue  his  four  8vos.,  describing  the  sepulchral 


monuments  of  the  cemetery  of  Bologna,  and  illus- 
trating them  with  152  plates.  It  is  generally 
believed  that  the  first  Etruscan  Federation  of 
Twelve  Cities  was  founded,  west  of  the  Apennines, 
on  the  shores  of  the  Tyrrhenian  Sea ;  and  the  date 
is  laid  about  the  fourteenth  century  B.C.  The  chief 
witness  is  the  Karnak  inscription  of  the  '  Pharaoh ' 
Merien  Phtah  (Menephtah  I.),  son  and  successor 
of  Ramses  the  Great  (II.  of  nineteenth  dynasty), 
which  mentions,  amongst  the  invaders  of  the  Egyp- 
tian Delta  from  the  '  regions  of  the  sea,  the  isles 
of  the  sea/  Sicily  and  Sardinia,  the  Lycians,  and, 
to  quote  no  other  names,  the  '  Turis'a/  or  '  Tur- 
scha'  (Tursci,  Turski,  or  Tusci),1  the  Greek 
Thyrsenoi,  who  occupied  Tyrrhenia.  After  over- 
populating  the  land,  they  crossed  the  backbone  of 

1  The  Eugubine  Tables  (commented  upon  by  Lepsius),  of  which  five 
are  in  Etruscan  and  two  in  Latin  characters,  give,  as  variants  of  Tuscus, 
Tursce,  Turscer,  Tuscum,  and,  in  the  fourth  line,  Turskum.  The 
Vicomte  de  Rougd  (Revue  Archceo.,  Nouvelle  Se'rie,  8th  year,  August 
1867)  translates  '  Turis'a  (Tyrrhenus)  cceperat  caput  belli  totius,  bellator 
omnis  regionis  ejus  adduxerat  uxorem  (et)  liberos  suos,'  and  he  remarks 
that,  had  the  Etruscans  not  failed, '  une  colonie  Tyrrhe"nienne  cut  de- 
vance"  Alexandre  de  plus  de  dix  siecles.'  Chabas  (Etudes  sur  FAntiq., 
&•<:.,  1872),  in  a  new  version  of  this  important  inscription,  makes  the 
leader  not  the  '  Tursha '  (Etruscans),  but  Marmaion,  King  of  the 
Lybians,  and  son  of  Teit  or  Deid,  who,  after  the  battle  on  the  left  of 
the  Nile,  escaped  to  the  north,  leaving  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy  890 
Etruscan  hands  and  6,369  Lybian  trophies.  The  word  '  Raseni'  occurs 
for  the  first  time  in  Dion.  Hal.,  and  thus  it  is  comparatively  modern. 

1 6  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

the  country,  and  conquered  the   Aryan    Umbrians, 
whose   mariere  and    terramare    (pile-villages     and 
kitchen-middens) — not  to   be   confounded  with  the 
subsequent   Etruscan — still    remain.       These   races 
were   familiar   with   metal-working,   and   they   had 
succeeded   the   '  great  ocean   of  Turanians '  which 
that    highly-distinguished     Mongol     scholar,     Prof. 
Paul  Hunfalvy,  would  call  '  An-Aryans;'  and  again 
these,  perhaps,  the  men  of  the  latest   Tertiary  or 
of  the  earliest  Quaternary  epoch.     In  the  Circum- 
padane  regions  the  Etruscan  immigrants — dated,  by 
the  general  voice  of  history,  about  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury B.C. — built  their  cities  and  cemeteries,  Felsina 
being   the   chief    centre,    and    annexed   Atria   and 
Spina,    the    maritime    depots.       This    theory    as- 
sumes that  the  Etruscans  all  travelled  by  water  and 
not  by  land — which,  to  say  the  least,  is  not  proven. 
In   the   inverse   case   they  would  first   occupy  the 
eastern  and  afterwards  the  western   slopes  of  the 
Apennines ;   and  thence,    emboldened   by   strength 
and  security,  they  would  overspread  the  surround- 
ing    lowlands,    and    become    pedionomites.       But 
there  is  nothing  to  disprove  the  habit  of  voyaging 
and  of  travelling  at  the  same  or  at  different  times ; 
thus,  indeed,   I   would  explain  the  modern  theory 


of  a  dozen  writers,  which  derives  the  Rasenna 
from  the  Rhaetian  Alps,  and  the  existence  of  the 
Euganeans,  a  kindred  tribe  in  the  vicinity  of  Padua. 
And,  in  the  peculiar  fanaticism  of  the  modern 
Tyrolese,  I  find  direct  survival  from  the  '  gens  ante 
omnes  alias  dedita  religionibus.' 

The  tower-tombs  of  Palmyra  and  the  rock-tombs 
of  Asia  Minor  and  Syria  Proper,  where  the  dead 
lay  buried  along  the  main  lines  of  suburban  road, 
were  reproduced  by  the  Etruscans  in  their  new 
Italian  homes.  This  aesthetic  and  artistic  system 
of  sepulture,  which  made  the  monuments  true 
'  monimenta,' — an  immense  advance  upon  the  days 
when  the  corpse  was  interred,  as  by  modern  Africans, 
in  the  house  ;  by  Moslems  near  it,  and  by  Christians 
in  the  church — was  borrowed,  with  a  host  of  cere- 
monies and  superstitions,  by  the  Romans,  as  the 
well-known  instance  of  the  Via  Appia  proves : 
and  yet  the  old  habit  survived  in  the  burial  of  babes 
that  had  not  cut  their  teeth  under  the  roof-eaves 
(su&grundarium),  like  swallows'  nests.  These  groups 
of  sepulchres,  which  will  presently  be  described, 
enable  a  '  hypothetical  planimetry  '  to  lay  down,  with 
a  tolerably  sure  hand,  the  lines  and  limits  of  Etruscan 


1 8  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

Felsina,1  the  colony  of  Tarchon,  the  capital  of 
the  twelve  Federated  Cities  in  the  so-called  Etruria 
Nova.  Evidently  built  upon  an  Umbrian  site,  and 
smaller  than  its  Roman  successor,  it  did  not  ex- 
tend, as  some  archaeologists  have  supposed,  to  the 
southern  hills.  The  position  was  the  normal  isth- 
mus, '  mull,'  or  peninsula ;  whose  base  is  the  Reno 
River,  a  non  ignobile  flumen,  rising  in  the  nearest 

1  The  only  names  which  have  survived  this  Federation  are  Atria 
(Pelasgic),  Spina  (Pelasgic),  Mantua,  Melpum  (captured  by  the  Boii), 
Felsina  or  Velsina,  and,  perhaps,  we  may  now  add,  Misa. 

Cav.  Zannoni,  of  whom  more  presently,  quotes  Manetho  :  '  Apud 
enim  Tuscos,  Pyseo  successit  Tuscus  junior  annis  xxxix. :  huic  Aucnus 
annis  xxv.,  quern  secutus  est  Felsinus  annis  xxxiii.'  Sil.  Ital.  (De  Bell. 
Pun.  lib.  viii.  601):  '  Ocniprisca  domus.'  Servius  ad ^En.  (x.  198)  adds  : 
'  Hunc  Ocnum  alii  Auletis  filium,  alii  fratrem,  qui  Perusiam  condidit 
referunt  :  et  ne  cum  fratre  contenderet  in  agro  Gallico,  Felsinam,  quaa 
nunc  Bononia  dicitur,  condidisse.'  Pliny  (iii.  19)  says:  '  Bononia  Felsina 
vocitata.'  Sempronius  (De  Div.  et  Chorogr.  Italice) :  '  Flaminea  (regio) 
item  a  Bononia  ad  Rubiconem  amnem  ante  a  Felsina  a  principe  He- 
trurias  missis  coloniis  Lamonibus.'  M.  Cato  (De  Originibus) :  '  Gallia 
Cispadana,  olim  Bianora  a  victore  Ocno,  postea  Felsina  dicta  usque 
Ravennam,  nunc  Gallia  Aurelia,  Emilia  a  Romanis  ducibus  nomen 
habet.  Princeps  metropolis  Felsina  primum  a  rege  Thusco  conditur.' 
Livy  has  (Hist,  xxxiii.  37)  '  Dein  (consules,  viz.  M.  Claudius  Marcellus 
and»L.  Furius  Purpureo)  junctis  exercitibus  primum  Boiorum  agrum 
usque  ad  Felsinam  oppidum  populantes  peragraverunt.  Ea  urbs, 
caeteraque  castella  et  Boii  fere  omnes,  praeter  juventutem,  quae  prasdandi 
causa  in  armis  erat  (tune  in  devias  silvas  recesserat),  in  deditionem 
venerunt'(^-  C.  556).  '  Felsina '  then  disappears  from  literature,  and 
the  historian  (lib.  xxxvii.  34)  speaks  of  Bononia  as  a '  colonia  Latina,' 
established  after  a  Senatus  Consult,  by  the  Triumvirs,  S.  Valerius 
Flaccus,  M.  Atilius  Seranus  and  Valerius  Tappus. 


Apennines  about  Pistoja,  and  whose  arms  are 
the  Aposa  affluent  to  the  east,  and  the  Ravona 
westward.  It  was  probably  walled  round,  like 
Etruscan  cities  generally  ;  the  interior  was  divided 
into  '  insulse,'  or  '  regiones,'  by  main  lines  of  street, 
each  with  its  own  gate  or  gates  ;  and  it  is  noticed 
that  the  most  ancient  sepulchres  are  those  nearest 
the  defences.  Probably  a  considerable  part  was  of 
timber.  Strabo  (v.  i.  §  7)  tells  us  that  Ravenna, 
a  city  of  the  Thessalians,  given  over  by  these 
Pelasgi  to  the  Umbrians,  was  composed  of  wooden 
edifices;1  and  Atria,  Hat,  or  Hatri,  which  named 
the  Adriatic,  preserves,  according  to  the  learned 
Bocchi  ('  Importanza  di  Adria  la  Veneta  '),  memories 
of  similar  constructions,  the  spoils  of  the  oaks,  which 
in  Virgil's  day  — 

On  Padus'  bank  .  .  . 
Uprear  their  heads,  and  nod  their  crests  sublime. 

.  ix.  680-2. 

Atop  of  the  Etruscan  city  lay  Bononia,  whose  name, 
revived  in  Bononia  Gessoriacum  (Boulogne),  has 
been  erroneously  derived  from  the  Boii.  These 
barbarians,  about  B.C.  350,  ravaged  the  Etruscan 

1  The  French  translators  understand  $i>Xo7r«y»/£  SXi/,   '  built  wholly 
on  piles.' 

C  2 

20  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

Federation  of  the  Po,  and  finally  bequeathed  a 
name  to  Bohemia.  The  Consular  Via  Emilia,  the 
Great  North- Eastern,  probably  a  successor  of  the 
Etruscan  highway,  traversed  the  city  from  west  to 
east,  as  is  proved  by  the  trachytic  slabs  found  some 
three  metres  below  the  actual  level ;  a  metalling 
brought  from  the  Euganean  hills,  and  still  showing 
the  wheel-rut.  Bononia,  larger  than  Felsina,  was 
smaller  than  Bologna,  a  hexagon,  measuring  about 
two  miles  in  circumference ;  and  the  Via  Emilia 
still  enables  us  to  master  the  intricacy  of  the  modern 
city.  This  thoroughfare  corresponded  with  the 
Corso,  which  runs,  roughly  speaking,  between  the 
two  halves,  northern  and  southern.  Eastward  the 
main  street  radiates  into  four  branches  :  the  Via 
Luigi  Zamboni  (old  S.  Donate)  to  the  north-east ; 
the  Strade  S.  Vitale,  Maggiore,  and  di  S.  Stefano, 
the  latter  to  the  south-east ;  while  to  the  west  there 
are  three  spokes,  the  Strade  delle  Lamme  and  di  S. 
Felice,  and  the  Via  del  '  Pradello.' 




BEFORE  proceeding  to  the  cities  and  cemeteries  of 
this  mysterious  Etruscan  race,  it  is  advisable  to  spend 
a  few  days  amongst  the  museums  of  Bologna.     The 
two   public   are   the    R.   Museo  Archeologico  dell' 
Universita  Bolognese,  containing  a  collection  which 
in  1871  was  exhibited  in  a  house  further  down  the 
street ;  now  it  occupies  a  room  in  the  modern  Univer- 
sity, the  old  Palazzo  Poggi.     Here  the  most  notice- 
able  article  is  the   metal    mirror,    known    from    its 
original  owner  as  the  Patera  Cospiana,  the  'gemma 
Maffeiana/  which  is  described  as  a  'capolavoro  di 
glittica : '  hither  also  the  '  Mamolo  finds '  were  trans- 
ferred.    The  second — and  allow  me  to  remark,  en 
passant,  that  the  sooner  Bologna  combines  the  two 
collections,  royal  and  communal,  the  better — is  in  the 
old  Archiginnasio,  afterwards  called  the  Scuole  Pie, 
from  its  Charity  Schools,  and  now  the  Biblioteca  del 

22  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

Comune.  The  frescoes  and  inscriptions,  the  court 
and  galleries,  of  this  venerable  edifice,  which  once 
rang  with  every  tongue  of  Europe  and  the  nearer 
East,  are  described  by  all  the  guide-books  ;  but  none, 
not  even  Cav.  Gualandi,  notice  the  collections  of 
1870-1.  They  are  deposited  in  the  Sale  (iii.  and  iv.), 
inscribed  '  Scavi  della  Certosa,'  of  the  Museo  Civico, 
which  lie  at  the  northern  end  of  the  grand  cloister. 

The  arrangement  is  admirable.  The  walls  of 
Sala  No.  iii.  are  hung  with  large  and  detailed  maps 
and  plans,  illustrating  the  topography  of  the  find, 
which  may  be  called  the  '  Certosa  Collection.'  The 
merit  of  the  discovery  must  be  assigned  to  Cav. 
Antonio  Zannoni,  '  Capo-Ingegnere  Architetto '  of 
the  Municipality,  who,  guided  by  what  seems  archaeo- 
logical instinct,  began  to  excavate  in  1869.  Four 
hundred  tombs  were  opened  in  four  years.  All 
the  skeletons  lay  supine ;  only  six  were  irregularly 
disposed,  probably  facing  their  homes — we  find  the 
practice  noticed  in  Homer,  and  the  beatulus  of  Per- 
sius  '  in  portam  rigidos  calces  extendit.'  All  the 
rest  were  oriented  with  their  feet  towards  the  rising 
sun,  as  the  Jews  fronted  Jerusalem.  Thus  Laertius 
tells  us  that  the  Greek  liturgies  ordered  the  face  to 
look  eastwards,  and  Helianus  reports  an  old  law, 


which  directed  the  head  to  be  disposed  westward : 
we  shall  presently  learn  that  this  was  also  an 
Umbrian  custom  ;  and  that  it  was  perpetuated  by  the 
Romans.  A  happy  thought  of  Cav.  Zannoni  was 
bodily  to  transport  the  skeletons,  adult  and  infantine,1 
together  with  the  remnants  of  coffins  (arete),  and 
even  the  earth  upon  which  they  lay.  Except  only 
the  as  rude,  the  fee  of  the  '  griesly  grim '  Ferryman, 
grasped  in  the  right  hand,  the  funereal  adjuncts 
were  placed  on  the  left  (north).  These  are  Celebes, 
amphorae,  tazze,  and  unguentaria  of  glass  or  alabaster, 
in  fact,  the  multiform  vases  and  pots  for  whose 
names  the  curious  reader  will  consult  my  friend  and 
colleague  Mr.  Dennis  ('  Cities  and  Cemeteries  of 
Western  Etruria,'  i.,  xciv.,  c.)  ;  together  with  can- 
delabra, dice,  and  pebbles,  the  latter  possibly 
counters  for  play.  The  marriage-ring  still  clings  to 
the  fleshless  annular  of  the  left  hand :  here  is  the 
old  superstition  (Isidore)  which  made  a  vein  run 
from  it  to  the  heart,  and  which  survives  throughout 
modern  Europe.  It  is  often  of  iron,2  the  servile 

1  They  are  mostly  feminine  ;  seven  are  adults  and  five  are  children. 

2  The  iron  ring  of  the  '  stern  old  Romans  '  is  still  found  amongst 
the  Sikhs  ;  and  the  strictest  Moslems  will  not  wear  gold.     Whilst  the 
Aryans  generally  call  the  '  fourth  finger '  of  the   Book  of  Common 
Prayer  (vulgarly  the  third  finger)  '  annularis,'  in  Illyrian  perstenjak, 

24  THE    WORKS   OF  MAN. 

metal  amongst  the  later  Romans,  who  denoted 
nobility  by  gold,  and  the  plebeian  by  silver.  The 
more  precious  rings  were  rare  at  the  Certosa.  Prof. 
Calori,  '  Delia  Stirpe  che  ha  populata  1'  antica  necro- 
poli  alia  Certosa  di  Bologna'  (Bologna  :  1873.  Plate 
ix.),  a  most  valuable  study  kindly  given  to  me  by  the 
author,  figures  two  of  these  skeletons  :  I  shall  offer 
further  remarks  upon  the  collection  when  we  visit 
the  spot. 

A  marking  feature  of  this  admirable  trouvaille 
is  the  number  of  ciste  in  bronze  a  cordoni;  we 
have  here  fourteen,  whereas  in  1871  Etruria 
Circumpadana  had  yielded  only  seven  ('  Lettera 
dell'  Ing.  Ant.  Zannoni  al  Sig.  Conte  Comm. 
Gian  Carlo  Conestabile.'  Torino :  Stamperia  Reale, 
Oct.  1 5th,  1873).  All  are  of  the  same  age,  and 
undoubtedly  denote  a  splendid  epoch.  The  cylin- 
ders are  two  plates  of  thin  bronze,  flat  bands  alter- 
nating with  cords  repousse-worked.  The  cover  is 
often  a  flat  stone,  and  the  lower  band  is  sometimes 
ornamented  with  leaves ;  the  horizontal  rings  num- 

the  Turanians,  according  to  my  learned  friend  Prof.  Hunfalvy,  of  Pesth, 
term  it  the  '  finger  without  a  name.'  This  is  found  in  Chinese  (Works  of 
Mencius),  in  Japanese,  and  in  the  Dravidian  tongues  ;  for  instance,  in 
Tamil,  Telugu,  and  Canarese,  it  appears  as  andmika,  '  anonymous,' 
from  the  Sanskrit,  ndma.  The  '  philological  puzzle '  was  lately  dis- 
cussed in  the  columns  of  the  Pall  Mall. 


ber  fourteen  or  fifteen,  and  the  bottom  is  also 
composed  of  concentric  circles.  Feet  are  present 
in  some  specimens,  absent  in  others.  The  total 
height  averages  0^33  metre  (=i  foot  0*99  inch), 
and  the  diameter  0*29  metre  (=  11*42  inches)  to 
o-4O  metre  (=i  foot  375  inches).  The  ornaments 
are  mostly  leaf-like  borderings,  near  the  upper  edge  ; 


winged  masks  at  the  junction  of  the  ansez-,  and, 
on  each  of  the  three  feet,  appears  in  one  specimen, 
a  satyr,  demi-couchant,  and  holding  a  wine-skin  and 
a  cup. 

These   artistic   articles   followed   the   rude  big- 
bellied  urn  of  terra  cotta,  which  contained  the  ashes 

26  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

of  the  dead,1  even  as  the  earthen  tazza  became  the 
bronze  cup.     It  has  been  suggested  that  during  the 
owner's  life   they   served   for  pixides   or    dressing- 
cases  ;  and  this  is  supported  by  the  presence  of  the 
ans&,  which  in  one  specimen  represent  a  bull  and  a 
ram.     The  cysts  of  Middle  Etruria,  and  especially 
those  of  Praeneste,  were  buried  as  ornaments  :  they 
contained  articles  of  toilette,  sponges,  unguentaria 
and  unguents,  the  little  rouge-box,  the  white  ceruse, 
&c.     The   Bolognese  cysts  are  said  to  have  been 
the  produce  of  local  art  and  industry  ;  yet  a  precisely 
similar  article,  with  handles  and  without  feet,  was 
found  at  Granholz,  near  Bern,  and  is  exhibited  at  the 
Stadt  Bibliotek  of  the  Swiss  capital.      MM.  Cave- 
doni  and  Gozzadini  infer  from  their  simplicity  that 
they  are  more  ancient  than  those  of  the  Central  Fed- 
eration and  of  Latium,  which  cannot  date  beyond 
the   first  half  of  the  third  century  B.C.  :    the  same 
may  be  said  of  the  bronze   disks  which  served  as 
mirrors.     I  would  further  notice  the  resemblance  of 
shape  with  the  kilindi  or  bark  cylinder,   in  which 
the  Mnyamwezi  stores  and  transports  his  valuables. 
Another  characteristic  of  this  collection  is   the 

1  At  the  Certosa  at  least  one  cyst  was  found  not  to  contain  human 


huge  and  highly  ornamented  stela  or  cippus,  the  pro- 
totype of  the  humble  headstone  in  the  churchyards 
of  our  villages  :  perhaps,  also,  the  meta,  or  goal- 

FIBUL^E  FROM  VILLANOVA  (all  half  size). 

a,  Fibula  with  amber  in  setting,     b,  Amber  beads,     c,  Glass  beads,  blue  ground, 
yellow  enamel. 

The  bronze  of  these  fibula  showed — 

Copper 84*26 

Tin 15-74 

like   shape,  symbolised  the   end   of  man's  exiguum 
curriculum.     From  the  learned  studies  of  the  late 

28  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

Count  Giovanni  da  Schio,  of  Vicenza  ('  Sulle  Iscri- 
zioni  ed  altri  monumenti  Reto-Euganei.'  Padova  : 
Angelo  Sicca,  1853),  of  which  I  owe  a  copy  to  the 
courtesy  of  his  two  sons,  Counts  Almerico  and  Al- 
vise,  we  learn  that  the  Euganeans  used  the  obelisk- 
shaped  gravestone,  whose  legend  usually  began  with 
EJ^O  (kic,  heic  ?).  Thirty  tombstones  were  found,  a 
monumental  series  unique  in  size  and  ornamenta- 
tion ;  and  the  largest  and  most  remarkable  of  these 
products  of  national  art  is  thus  described  by  Count 
G.  C.  Conestabile  ('Congres,'  p.  271)  :  'The  height, 
not  including  the  base  is  about  2'io  metres  (=6  feet 
10*68  inches) ;  the  breadth  1*26  metre  (=4  feet 
1*60  inch)  and  the  thickness  0*30  metre  (=11*81 
inches).  The  bas-reliefs,  raised  hardly  half-a-centi- 
metre  (=0*197  inch),  are  divided  into  four  com- 
partments to  the  front  and  three  behind.  Beginning 
at  the  top,  a  hippocampus  faces  a  Nereid  holding 
a  fish  :  in  the  second  zone  the  defunct,  umbrella 
in  hand,  rides  a  biga  behind  the  auriga ;  a  winged 
figure  soars  above  him,  and  before  the  horses 
marches  a  helmeted  form,  mantled  about  the  reins, 
with  a  torch  in  the  right  and  a  rudder  (oar)  in  the 
left  hand.  The  third  band  contains  two  pugilists, 
separated  by  a  little  tibicen,  and  flanked  by  the 


agonothetes  (director  of  games),  and  a  youth ;  the 
latter  holds  an  unguentarium  and  another  utensil  for 
the  comfort  of  the  combatants.  In  the  lowest  com- 
partment a  throned  figure  is  approached  by  a  person- 
age accompanying  a  car,  and  by  others  with  a  basket 
and  various  offerings — apparently  it  is  the  Infernal 
Deity  receiving  the  defunct  and  his  suite.  The 
reverse  contains  fewer  figures  :  a  feminine  body, 
ending  in  a  double  serpent's  tail,  hurls  a  rock ;  a 
charioteer  urges  his  biga  at  speed,  and  in  the  lowest 
a  warrior,  with  lance  and  shield,  faces  a  cloaked  form. 
These  designs  are  separated,  and  mixed  with  orna- 
ments of  leaves,  ivy  stems,  and  waving  lines.' 

Count  Conestabile,  who  would  distribute  the 
dates  of  the  several  kinds  of  stela  between  the 
third  and  the  fifth  or  even  the  sixth  century  of 
Rome,  followed  by  Cav.  Zannoni  (loc.  cit.  p.  27),  pro- 
poses a  four-fold  division  of  the  thirty  tomb-stones. 

1.  Rough  water-rolled  natural  blocks,  still  found 
in   the    Reno   bed ;   menisci,   lenticular,    cylindrical, 
ovoid,    or    spheroidal.      The    diameter    ranges    to 
077  metre  (=30*35  inches). 

2.  Long-ovoid  and  cylindrical  stelae,  with  plain 
faces,    and   sides    converging   below    like    termini, 
artificially   smoothed   and   flattened  ;    in    fact,    the 

30  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

menisci  civilised,  The  bases  were  left,  as  usual, 
unworked  for  planting  in  the  ground,  and  one  shows 
the  letters  IAN  or  NAI. 

3.  The  sculptured  stela  of  the  same  shape,  but 
especially  the  horse-shoe.  Of  these  splendid  speci- 
mens the  tallest  is  1*45  metre  (=4  feet  9x38  inches) 
by  o'8o  (  =  2  feet  7*50  inches)  broad  ;  a  segment  of  a 
circle  above,  with  the  sides  inclining  inwards  or  de- 
scending vertically.  It  is  carved  on  one,  perhaps  on 
both  faces  ;  and  here  and  there  it  preserves  traces  of 
red  paint,  with  which,  possibly,  the  name  was  inscribed 
(M.  Hirschfeld).  The  vine  and  the  ivy,  both  sacred 
to  Bacchus,1  meander  over  the  perimeter,  enclosing, 
as  has  been  shown,  a  variety  of  figures  ;  and  certainly 
the  most  remarkable,  when  we  remember  how  lately 
the  umbrella  found  its  way  into  England,  are  the 
personages  holding  it  with  the  right  hand — a  frequent 
rilievo  amongst  Etruscans.  The  others,  still  repre- 
senting funereal  usages,  are  a  panoplied  warrior,  with 
lance  at  rest ;  a  battle-scene  between  a  horseman 

1  Hence  the  Latin  saw:  'Vino  vendibili  suspensa  hedera  non  opus 
est '  ('  Good  wine  needs  no  bush  ')  ;  and  the  ivy-tuft  still  hangs  over  the 
(Enopolium  and  the  Thermopolium  of  I  stria.  It  is  not  difficult  to  de- 
tect the  origin  of  the  practice  in  the  beauty  of  the  plant  upon  the 
borders  of  the  Mediterranean  :  the  rich  purple  clusters  exactly  re- 
semble the  currant-grape  of  the  Peloponnesus,  and  the  perfume  of  the 
finely-veined  leaf  is  still  supposed  to  dissipate  the  fumes  of  wine. 


and  a  footman  ;  a  feminine  face  and  bust  ending,  not 
in  a  fish,  but  in  a  double  snake  ;  the  winged  Genius, 
with  a  serpent  in  either  hand  ;  the  biga  and  triga  ; 
horse-races,  and  chariot-races ;  the  barded  steed ; 
the  altar  and  basket ;  the  bark  (Baris  ?),  with  mast 
and  sail  ;  Charon,  holding  the  oar  in  the  left  hand  ; 
sports  with  balls  and  lances  ;  the  star ;  the  funereal 
owl,  the  hippocampus,  also  a  favourite ;  the  olive, 
the  myrtle,  and  the  pomegranate  ;  and  various  other 
herbs,  flowers,  lotus  (?),  and  fruits.  The  signs  of 
archaism  are  the  shallowness  of  relief;  heavy  pro- 
portions ;  angular  movements  in  the  figures  ;  im- 
perfect forms,  and  indistinctness  of  details.  In  later 
times  the  sculptor's  hand  became  freer,  his  tool 
worked  with  greater  breadth,  vivacity,  and  truth ; 
and,  finally,  he  arrived  at  individualism. 

4.  Spheres  and  spheroid  stones,  worked  and  pro- 
longed in  the  rough  where  the  parallelopipedon 
base  was  intended  for  planting  in  the  ground — a 
form  very  rare  in  Etruria  Proper,  the  central  region 
between  the  Campanian  and  the  Circumpadan. 
Two  globes  of  remarkable  size  are  in  this  museum  ; 
perhaps  they  symbolised  the  head,  neck,  and 
shoulders  which  lay  below.  A  smaller  ball,  carved 
with  a  little  figure,  was  unearthed,  as  will  after- 

32  THE   WORKS  OF  MAN. 

wards  appear,  at  Marzabotto  ;  and  another,  cut  only 
on  one  side,  was  taken  from  the  Torricelli  tombs. 

The  articles  of  pottery,  not  including  fragments, 
reach  the  goodly  total  of  810.  These  interesting 
remains  of  home  life  were  found  with  the  skeletons, 
as  well  as  with  the  ashes,  and  they  are  divided  by 
Cav.  Zannoni  into  four  kinds  : — 

1.  The   rude    brown,   black,    and    ash-coloured, 
numbering  200. 

2.  The  plain  red  (160). 

3.  The  plain  varnished  black  (150). 

4.  The  painted  and  figured  (300). 

The  latter  again  are  either  red  figures  on  black 
fields  with  violet  accessories,  or  black  on  red  with 
violet  and  white,  for  flesh  and  tools.  The  former 
belonged  generally  to  the  tombs,  the  latter  to  the 
pyres.  More  than  50  bear  inscribed  marks.  The 
collector's  chief  enemy,  both  in  pottery  and  in 
bronze,  is  the  general  custom  of  breaking,  sometimes 
with  great  violence,  the  objects  which  accompany 
the  defunct :  thus  the  ghost  or  '  material  soul '  of  a 
man  ate  the  Manitou,  spirit  or  ghost  of  food,  out 
of  the  phantasm  or  ghost  of  a  pot.  So  Propertius 
(iv.  7>  33):— 

Hoc  etiam  grave  erat,  nulla  mercede  hyacinthum 
Injicere,  et  fracto  busta  piare  cado. 


Amongst  modern  Fetishists  it  is  not  held  loyal 
to  take  anything  from  the  person  of  the  dead,  and 
some  advanced  tribes,  such  as  the  people  of  the 
Old  Calabar  River,  allow  houses,  canoes,  furniture, 
weapons,  boxes,  and  moveable  wealth  to  fall  to 
pieces ;  whilst  others  break  them  up  and  form  a  kind 
of  monument.  It  is  here  easy  to  see  the  connec- 
tion with  sacrifice,  human  and  bestial. 

Specimens  of  the  CBS  signatum  were  also  found. 
According  to  Pliny  (xxxiii.  13)  it  was  used  in  the 
days  of  Servius  Tullus — king  or  dynasty — but  we 
know  from  him  (xxxiv.  13)  that  Numa  had  in- 
stituted cerarii,  or  coppersmiths.  The  ces  rude, 
whose  funereo-religious  use  continued  to  Imperial 
ages,  has  four  several  shapes 1  at  Villanova,  the 
Certosa,  and  Marzabotto ;  and  these,  again,  vary  not 
only  in  the  amount  of  alloy,  but  in  the  nature  of 
the  metal.  Some  have  tin  and  zinc  with  lead  ; 
others  only  the  last. 

i.  The  rude  inform  or  scoriform  mass,  ash- 
coloured,  and  friable  under  the  hammer,  has  96*592 
per  cent,  of  copper;  lead,  2-142;  and  the  rest  is 
impure  matter  without  zinc  or  tin. 

1  The  (zs grave  appeared  only  in  the  fourth  century  of  Rome. 


34  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

2.  The  cylindrical  or  virgated,  with  Jongitudinal 
striae,  9177  ;  tin,  8*22  \  of  lead  a  trace,  and  no  zinc. 

3.  The  flat,    or  laminated  like  the  fragment  of 
an  ingot,  has  only  80*679;  lead,    17-886;   and  tin, 


4.  The  discoid,  more  or  less  ovoidal,  -possibly  the 

oboles  of  Plutarch  (Vit.  Nttmtz),  whence  came  the 
obolus.  One  disk  (diam.  0*03  metre=i°i8  inch) 
engraved  with  three  parallel  lines,  may  be  an  ces 
signatiim  (?). 

The  following  is  the  late  Prof.  Sgarzi's  analysis  of 
the  &s  rude  of  Villanova  (i),  and  of  the  stips  votiva 
of  Vicarello  (2),  compared  with  the  ess  rude  of  Mar- 
zabotto  (3)  (Prof.  Missaglia)  : — 

I.  2. 

Copper    .        .    937°)  Copper    .        .    95-20) 

\  100-00         _.    '  „   h  100-00 

Tin  .        .     06-30]  Tin          .        .     04-80) 


Copper        .         .     64-40  and  54-6 1 1 
Lead    .        .        .     32-53    „    38-00  h  =  100-00 
Accidental  elements  (trace)  J 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  bronze  of  Vicarello  is  the 
ruder  material,  and  probably  more  ancient,  as  it  con- 
tains the  smallest  quantity  of  alloy.  Lead  and  tin 
in  increased  proportions  appear  at  the  Certosa,  and 
even  more  at  Marzabotto.  That  of  Vicarello  has 
the  zinc  alloy  of  the  Romans.  And,  whilst  all  the 


reputed  bronzes  found  outside  Italy,  as  the  vase  in 
the  museum  of  Bern,  contain  lead,  here  in  some  it 
is  present,  and  absent  from  others.  Cav.  Zannoni 
(p.  46)  suggests  that  the  shapes  are  not  accidental, 
but  arbitrary,  to  show  the  different  monetary  value, 
which  would  vary  with  the  quantity  and  the  quality 
of  alloy. 

The  industry  of  the  stone  age  is  represented 
by  arrow-heads  (elf-shots),  axes  (coins  de  foudre} ; 1 
knives  or  scrapers,  flakes  artificially  struck  from  the 
core ;  fictile  disks  in  great  numbers — some  of  the 
latter  may  have  been  used  for  the  dress  weights, 
which  will  presently  be  described.  In  this  part  of 
the  collection  there  is  nothing  to  notice.  The  bronze 
weapons  are  fragments  of  a  large  round  clypeus, 
with  gilt  and  engraved  handle  ;  a  galea ;  three 
knives,  like  those  of  Caserta  and  Matray  in  Rhsetia,2 

1  These  glossopetrce  or  betuli,  the  ceraunicz  similes  securibus  of 
Pliny;  the  ceraunicz  gemma  of  other  writers,  are  so  called  in  the  Chan- 
nel Islands  and  elsewhere.     The  Calabrese  believe  that  these  cuogni 
di  trtioni  are  the  bolt  itself  (ceraunites,  not  anna  heroum)  :  they  strike 
1 8  canne(each  2'2i  metres)  deep,  and  they  mount  I  canna  per  annum, 
when  they  reach  the  surface,  and  form  most  valuable  talismans  against 
thunder.     They  are  proved  by  being  hung  over  the  fire  with  a  blue 
thread,  which  must  not  burn.     With  this  boorish  superstition  the  axe 
of  the  savage  has  been  worn  on  the  warrior's  helm  and  on  the  royal 
diadem.  , 

2  At  Matray,  also  written  Matrai,  a  village  on  the  northern  slope 
of  the  Brenner  Mountain  in  the  Tyrol,  was  found  in  1845  the  part  of 

D  2 

36  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

whence  Freret  and  Heyne,  Niebuhr,  and  Mommsen 
would  derive  the  original  Etruscans ;  one  small 
and  two  long  narrow  cuspides  (lance-heads) ;  a  long, 
heavy  iron  cutter,  found  in  the  grasp  of  a  young 
and  vigorous  male  skeleton,  bore  signs  of  a  wooden 
scabbard,  showing  that  the  Etruscans  were  wiser  in 
this  matter  than  we  are. 

Amongst  the  unexplained  articles  are  cylinders, 
shaped  like  dumb-bells,  but  ending  in  menisci,  not  in 


spheres,  made  of  fine  black  clay,  about  o  m.  8  cent. 
(  =  275   inches  long),  oftener  plain,  and  sometimes 

a  procession  in  relief,  illustrated  by  the  late  Count  Giovanni  da  Schio, 
to  which  allusion  will  presently  be  made.  The  rude  art  is  held  to 
confirm  the  testimony  of  Livy  (v.  33),  of  Pliny  (iii.  24),  and  of  Justin 
(xx.  5),  that  Rhastia  was  conquered  by  and  occupied  by  the  Etruscans 
when  driven  by  the  Gauls  from  their  Padan  settlements.  Evidently 
it  may  prove  the  reverse,  and  an  emigration  from  north  to  south  is 
more  credible  than  a  movement  vice  versd. 


ornamented  at  both  ends  with  five  circles  and  the 
mystic  die.     Of  these  as  many  as  twenty,  all  un- 
broken,  were  found  in  the  wealthiest  tombs  ;   and 
Villanova  yielded  seventy-four.    The  'Grotto  of  Isis' 
(necropolis  of  Volci)  has  supplied  similar  articles  ; 
and  Visconti  figures  (Mus.  P.  Cl.  ii.  pi.  17,  18)  what 
appear  to  be  the  same  things  in  the  hands  of  two 
Egyptian   statues.      He   suggests,    first,    that   they 
were  emblems  of  the  Agathodsemon  ;  secondly,  that 
they  were  pJialli.    Others  suppose  them  to  have  been 
used  in  worshipping  the  Lampsacan  god,  and  they 
offer  a  superficial  resemblance  to  certain   emblems 
well  known  in   India.     They  are  always  found  in 
pairs,  but  no  use  for  them  has  yet  been  defined. 
In  the  Isis-grotto  of  Vulci,  however,  we  see  similar 
shapes  used  by  men  jumping  ;  and  the  second  table 
of  Count  Schio's  learned  study  represents  two  nude 
pugilists    contending    with    (leaden  ?)    halteres    or 
alteres l  in  their  hands.     I  reminded  Count  Gozza- 
dini  of  his  cousin's  publication.    He  replied,  however, 
that    the   resemblance  could    not   be   accepted,    as 
many  of  the  clay  cylinders  were  only  3  centimetres 
(=  i 'i 8  inch)  long.     But,  these  simulacra  might,  as 
was  the  custom  with  the  human  figure,  with  weapons, 

1  Quid  pereunt  stulto  fortes  altere  lacerti  ?  (Martial,  xiv.  44). 

38  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

and  with  other  articles,  have  been  reduced  imita- 
tions for  the  purpose  of  sepulture.  The  Lilliputian 
agricultural  implements  of  bronze  in  Sardinia,  to 
mention  no  other  place,  are  supposed  to  be  symbols 
or  religious  emblems  (Congres,  p.  27). 

Bronzes  are  numerous  in  the  Archiginnasio  ;  but 
of  the  1 3  mirrors,  of  which  one  is  white  metal,  none 
are  inscribed  or  figured.  Besides  situlce,  there  are 
cenochoes  (12),  cullenders  (n),  simpiili  (20),  and 
candelabra  (30) :  many  show  the  forms  familiar  to 
the  peasant's  cottage  in  the  present  day.  Some 
of  the  iron  coffin-rails  have  bronze  heads,  like  those 
found  at  Salona.  Professors  Pucinotti  and  Casali 
detected  little  zinc  in  bits  of  fused  and  worked 
bronze  of  a  candelabrum  from  Villanova  (No.  i), 
the  Certosa  (2),  and  Marzabotto  (3) : — 




•    9l'll\ 

Copper  . 


Tin       . 

v  —  nn-88 



Iron,  trace 

h  -99  55 



Zinc,   „ 




•     95  '93) 

Tin      . 

.      04-07  L  =  lOO'OO 

Iron,  trace 


The  beaten  bronze  from  Villanova  (i),  the 
Certosa  (2),  and  Marzabotto  (3),  gave  the  following 
results : — 


I.  2. 

Copper  .     94-4  >  Copper       .     83754) 

Tin        .  .     05*1  Tin    .        .     16-246) 

Iron,  trace 
Zinc,     „ 


Copper 9I>32] 

Tin o8'68  r  =  loo-oo 

Zinc, trace  ) 

The  bone  dice  were  numerous  and  of  two 
kinds,  cubes  (xvfi°<;)  and  oblongs,  the  latter  bear- 
ing the  '  canis,'  (xuwv)  or  '  canicula,'  the  Greek 
N.OVO.S  or  "vy  (imio],  and  one  ace  at  one  short 
end,  and  the  deuce  at  the  other.1  In  both  the 
concentric  circlets  varied  from  one  to  three,  and 
were  coloured  red  or  blue.  The  disposition  of 
the  '  pips '  also  completely  distinguishes  them  from 
the  Roman  dice,  according  to  Cav.  Zannoni,  who 
has  forwarded  his  description  to  the  eminent 
Etruscologue,  Prof.  Ariodante  Fabretti,  for  publi- 
cation in  the  continuation  of  his  great  work.  Thus 
the  correspondence  from  Twickenham,  concerning 

1  Lord  Crawford  (Athenceum,  April  n,  1874)  remembering  the 
'  damnosa  canicula,'  and  the  '  damnati  canes ' — the  damned  dogs — of 
the  poets,  hence  derives  the  '  dog-luck  of  our  modern  slang  speech.' 
This  is  going  deep  for  a  proverbial  saying  which  lies  on  the  surface. 
We  might  as  well  refer  '  son  of  a  doggess'  to  the  offspring  of  Hecuba. 
And  if  unto,  the  ace,  is  so  condemned,  how  can  we  believe  it  to  repre- 
sent Sirius,  the  Canicula,  sacred  to  Mercury  or  Hermes,  the  god  of 
good  luck  ? 

40  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

the  scheme  of  the  marks,  which  appeared  in  the 
'  Athenseum  '  (July  1874),  is,  to  speak  mildly,  pre- 
mature, and  the  '  hypothesis '  about  Sig.  Campanari 
uncalled  for.  I  expect  great  things  from  a  scien- 
tific illustration  of  these  '  Lydian  implements.' 

One  of  the   situlcz   contained    a   light   ligneous 
matter,  very  porous  and  friable.     Treated  by  Prof. 
Adolfo  Casali,  it  proved  insoluble  in  water  ;  concen- 
trated  alcohol  dissolved   about   one-sixth,  and  the 
dissolution  strongly  troubled  water,  which  left  when 
evaporated  an  orange-black  sediment.     The  latter, 
exposed   to    fire,    burnt  with   a   fuliginous  flame — 
briefly,  it  appeared  to  a  mixture  of  olibanum  and 
storax,   serving  like  the   incense   still   used  in  our 

The  amount  of  toilette  articles  was  immense  in 
variety,  if  not  in  number ;  of  bronze  fibula  200 
articles,  of  silver  120  (two  large  and  fine),  and 
of  gold  2.  They  are,  as  usual,  complicated  and 
multiform,  and  three  had  enamelled  glass  beads  on 
the  needle.  There  were  150  bronze  buttons  ;  10 
annilke;  huge  pins  for  the  use  of  the  ornatrix 
(coiffeuse)',  7  gold  rings;  10  silver,  and  3  iron; 
with  sundry  of  paste,  bone,  and  amber.  The  pen- 
deloques  are  20  of  glass,  mostly  enamelled,  and 


50  of  brown  pottery.  The  earrings  are  of  amber, 
iron,  silver,  and  gold  (7  pairs  and  3  odd  of  the 
latter)  :  some  weigh  four-tenths  of  an  ounce  (13 
grammes  =  200^60  grains).  The  minute  balls  of 
gold,  which  the  Etruscans  soldered  with  a  mar- 
vellous art,  the  elegant  filigrane  and  granulated 
work,  are  the  despair  even  of  the  famous  Castellani. 
One  is  a  serpent  biting  its  own  tail,  and  another  a 
leonine  head.  The  pixis  or  dressing-case,  rivetted 
with  plates  of  bone,  stands  on  four  feet,  and 
contains  little  cylinders  of  the  same  material.  The 
aryballa  (perfume-holders)  and  unguentaria  of 
pottery,  alabaster,  and  glass,  coloured  and  en- 
amelled, still  contain  rouge,  which  analysis  proves 
to  be  colcothar  or  crocus  martis  (oxide  of  iron), 
locally  called  rosso  Inglese  or  rossetto  di  Parigi. 
The  mirrors,  all  plain,  number  13,  including  one 
of  white  metal,  probably  copper  and  tin ;  the  front 
disk  is  slightly  concave,  and  none  are  of  stone  : 
1 2  others  are  of  bronze.  The  necklaces  are  chiefly 
of  glass,  and  of  amber,  concerning  which  long  dis- 
cussions took  place  at  the  Congress  of  Bologna. 
The  general  opinion  was  that  this  semi-mineralized 
gum  came  from  the  Baltic,  and  denoted  an  ancient 
connection  with  the  Phoenicians.  One  necklace  had, 

42  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

by  way  of  pendant,  a  silex  arrow-head,  probably 
a  charm  against  the  fiery  tongue  with  which  God 
spoke  to  man  —  a  superstition  far  from  extinct 
amongst  the  highly-civilised,  even  in  this  day,  when 
the  philosopher  makes  thunder  and  lightning  in  his 

The  gem  of  the  collection  is  the  splendid  vase 
(Sala  No.  iii.),  which  contained  burnt  bones,  ashes, 
and  fragments  of  tissue ;  it  is  a  cone,  truncated 
below,  about  a  foot  high  ;  or,  more  exactly,  0*32 
metres  (=i  foot  O'6o),  and  in  diameter  a  maximum 
of  0*29  (  =  12*42  inches),  and  a  minimum  of  0*13 
(=  5*12  inches).  The  archaic  aspect,  the  variety 
of  subjects,  the  general  composition,  and  the  mar- 
vellous execution  of  this  find  demand  a  full  notice. 
The  bas-reliefs,  repousse  and  chiselled  work,  cover- 
ing the  bulge,  are  divided  into  four  horizontal 
zones,  which  does  not,  however,  exclude  the  unity 
of  the  design — a  varied  and  pompous  procession, 
and  the  ceremonies  of  a  great  religious  act  ending 
in  a  feast. 

The  first,  or  highest,  zone  shows  the  proces- 
sion. Two  horsemen  and  thirteen  footmen,  all  with 
couched  lances,  marching  from  right  to  left ;  their 
shields  are  four  oval,  five  long-oval,  and  the  rest 


circular  (clypei] ;  and  of  their  helms  five  are  hemi- 
spheres, with  the  apex  which  we  still  see  in  the 
German  pickelhaub,  while  the  rest  have  depending 
manes.  A  bird  hovers  over  the  horsemen,  and  four 
bell-men,  with  the  bronze  tintinnabula  so  frequently 
found  in  Central  Etruria,  bring  up  the  rear  of  this 
processional  section. 

The  second  band,  the  preparation  for  sacrificing 
a  bull  and  a  ram,  shows  the  advance,  this  time  from 
left  to  right,  of  the  victimarii  and  the  ministri  with 
the  animals  and  the  sacred  utensils,  followed  by 
three  canephorce,  vases  on  heads.  Two  of  the 
ministri  support  a  pole  or  brancard,  from  which 
hangs  a  situla  (pail  with  handles) ;  a  third  has 
charge  of  a  huge  ox,  over  whose  head  floats  a  bird 
like  Progne  ;  whilst  a  victimary  drags  by  the  horns 
a  goat,  sacred  to  Mars.1  Two  men  escort  a  pair 
of  mules,  whilst  others  carry  different  articles,  such 
as  knives,  vases,  baskets  (vannus  mysticus  ?),  and 
loads  of  wood.  There  are  three  quaint  figures  in 
long  robes  (toga  campestres  ?  without  tunics  ?),2 
and  the  gigantic  pilei  of  the  Spanish  cardinals, 
whom  Mgr.  de  Me"rode  described  as  coming  to  the 

1  '  Hircum  Marti  victimant'  (Apuleius,  lib.  vii.). 

2 '  Primo  sine  tunica  toga  sola  amicta  fuerunt '  (A.  Gellius). 

44  THE    WORKS   OF  MAN. 

QEcumenical  Council  in  their  canoes  ;  this  part  of 
the  composition  ends  with  a  big  dog. 

The  third  zone,  which  resumes  the  direction  of 
the  first,  displays  the  agricultural  pursuits  preced- 
ing the  preparations  for  the  feast :  a  calf  carried 
on  the  shoulders  of  two  slaves  ;  a  pig  drawn  by  a 
third,  and  others  following.  In  the  centre  of  the 
groups,  acting  the  point  de  mire,  appears  the  idea 
which  inspires  the  whole.  At  one  end  of  a  couch 
(biclinium  or  anaclynteris],  whose  arms  are  adorned 
with  griffins'  heads,  sits  a  lyre-player,  at  the  other  a 
performer  on  the  syrinx,  each  backed  by  a  small 
boy  in  the  nude.  They  wear  the  Img&pileus  before 
alluded  to ;  and  between  them  hangs  another  sitnla. 
Rural  episodes  on  the  right — hare-hunting  and  bird- 
netting  with  the  varra,  and  on  the  left  a  peasant 
carrying  his  primitive  plough  and  driving  his  steers, 
finish  both  ends  of  this  third  zone.  Finally,  the 
fourth  or  lowest  is  filled  with  fantastic  animals — 
five-winged  chimseras,  two  quadrupeds,  a  stag,  and 
so  forth. 

'  It  would  be  impossible/  says  Professor  Count 
J.  Conestabile,1  whose  account  differs  in  many  points 

1  Cav.  Zannoni  also  looks  upon  it  as  representing  not  a  funeral  but 
a  procession;  a  '  Laudesis'  (Dionysius,  ii.,  p.  129)  ;  a  Panathenaeum 


from  that  of  Cav.  Zannoni  (Scavi  della  Certosa,  page 
1 2) x  'to  describe  the  multitudinous  details  of  the 
figures  and  articles  upon  this  admirable  composition  ; 
the  marvellous  care  ;  the  finesse  of  execution  in  the 
ornamentation  of  the  armour,  the  tunics,  and  the 
mantles  ;  and  the  minute  exactness  with  which  the 
costumes  are  represented.  Whilst  the  animals  are 
admirably  drawn,  the  human  beings  show,  in  the 
highest  degree,  an  archaic,  or  rather,  artistically 
speaking,  an  infantine,  type,  in  the  prognathism,  the 
puffy  cheeks,  and  the  general  stiffness  of  the  move- 
ments ;  in  the  profiled  position  ;  in  the  arrangement 
of  the  dress,  and  in  the  absence  of  distinction  be- 
tween the  latter  and  the  forms  which  it  covers.  If 
this  archaism  be  really  what  it  appears,  original  and 

(Aristoph.  Nub.   v.  984),  a  Saltatio  (Livy,  i.  xx),  or  an  Armilustrum 
(Plaut.  Pseud,  iii.  112). 

1  '"  Sur  les  De"couvertes  de  la  Certosa  de  Bologne"  (pp.  272-274) 
in  the  Compte  Rendu  of  the  Congres  Internationale  k  Bologne,  1821.' 
The  valuable  volume  printed  by  Fava  and  Garagnani  at  Bologna,  1873, 
is  now  not  to  be  bought  there.  I  owe  my  copy  to  the  kindness  of  my 
excellent  friend  Prof.  Gian  Giuseppe  Cavaliere  Bianconi,  of  Bologna, 
whose  name  in  the  world  of  letters  is  so  well  known.  He  was  kind 
enough  to  give  me  copies  of  his  three  studies  (Bologna,  1862,  1868, 
1874)  on  Marco  Polo  and  the  Rukh-bird  (Degli  Scritti  di  Marco  Polo 
e  delF  Uccello  Rue,  <&•»<:.),  which  supply  much  interesting  matter  con- 
cerning the  original  edition  of  the  great  traveller.  In  his  memoir  en- 
titled Esperienze  intorno  alia  Flessibilita  del  Ghiaccio  (Bologna,  1871), 
he  proves  by  the  experiment  that  the  flexibility  of  ice,  as  supported  by- 
Forbes,  and  its  torsionability,  do  not  depend  upon  '  regelation.' 

46  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

not  imitated,  the  vase  may  date  from  the  third  cen- 
tury of  Rome  (B.C.  450),  a  period  which  we  obtain 
by  comparison  with  other  authentic  antiquities,  such 
as  the  fragments  of  the  Etruscan  car  in  the  museum 
of  Perugia,  where  the  human  figure  is  represented 
with  more  cunning.  Thus  this  rare  vase  would  be 
not  only  the  most  ancient  of  the  artistic  finds  from 
the  Bologna  necropolis,  but  would  antedate,  as  a 
witness  to  the  art  and  industry  of  the  people, 
everything  that  has  been  discovered  in  Northern 
Etruria.'  The  others  with  which  it  is  compared 
are  the  bronze  vase  with  burnt  bones  from  Valdi- 
chiana ;  another  from  Peccioli,  and  the  silver  gilt 
situla  of  Chiusi. 

I  rejoice  to  add,  that  this  unique  situla  will  be 
figured  in  facsimile  by  Cav.  Zannoni  in  his  forth- 
coming volume,  'Gli  Scavi  della  Certosa  di  Bologna.' 
The  work,  which  will  illustrate  the  Circumpadan 
Federation,  so  rich  in  olden  civilisation,  as  ably 
as  the  central  and  Campanian  regions  have  been 
treated  by  a  host  of  writers,  is  to  be  concluded  in 
twenty-five  issues,  of  which  the  first  may  be  expected 
daily  (March  i,  1875) ;  the  total  will  be  300  pages  of 
royal  folio,  with  150  tables  and  figures.  The  cost 
to  the  author  can  hardly  be  less  than  20,000  francs. 


He  is  aided  to  a  certain  extent  by  the  Municipality  ; 
but  the  learned  public  will  not,  I  hope,  allow  his  five 
years  of  incessant  labour,  at  hours  snatched  from 
official  work,  to  go  unrewarded. 

A  large  hall  and  its  offset  immediately  adjoin 
on  the  west  the  two  Etruscan  Salle.  The  floor  is 
covered,  as  well  as  the  tables,  with  piles  of  remains 
taken  from  hut  and  tomb.  In  due  time  they  will 
be  thrown  open  to  the  world,  classed  by  the  in- 
defatigable Cavaliere.  Meanwhile,  a  line  from  the 
courteous  municipal  authorities  admits  the  student. 
He  will  find  much  that  merits  his  attention,  such 
as  the  pin-heads  of  glass  enamelled  with  various 
metals ;  gold-leaf  artistically  beaten  upon  baser 
metal ;  a  vast  variety  of  articles  in  bronze  and  clay  ; 
and,  finally,  boars'  tusks,  perhaps  used  for  amulets, 
the  custom  of  the  modern  Moslem. 

Of  the  collection  of  Crania,  under  charge  of  the 
celebrated  Professor  Calori,  I  propose  to  speak  in  a 
future  page. 

48  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 



THE  Aria  family,  who  will  be  noticed  at  Marzabotto, 
have  collected  for  two  generations  the  Etruscan 
antiquities  found  upon  their  property.  But  the  most 
interesting,  not  only  for  its  antiquity,  but  also  be- 
cause it  has  been  described  with  so  much  learning 
and  detail,1  is  from  Villanova,  the  property  of  Count 
Gozzadini.  The  village  lies  '  about  eight  kilometres 
E.S.E.  of  Bologna,'  in  the  parish  of  Santa  Maria 
di  Casella,  upon  the  banks  of  the  I  dice  fiurnara,  of 
old  a  favourite  site  for  tombs.  The  place,  a  mere 
'  metairie,'  was  long  known  to  the  peasantry  as  the 

1  The  first  essay  is  entitled  Di  tin  Sepolcreto  Etrusco  scoperto 
presso  Bologna,  &c.  (Bologna,  Soc.  tip.  Bologn.  1855 — a  quarto  with 
8  plates).  The  second  is  a  quarto  with  one  plate:  Intorno  ad  altre 
settantuna  tombe,  &c.  (Bologna,  tip.  all'  Ancora,  1856)  ;  and  the  last  is 
La  Ntcropole  de  Villanova  (Bologna  :  Fava  et  Garagnani,  1870). 
This  learned  volume  was  given  to  me  by  the  author,  and  I  owe  the 
copies  of  its  illustrations  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Micklewright,  of 
Trieste.  The  conversion  of  metres  into  English  figures  is  the  work 
of  Mr.  E.  W.  Brocks,  British  Vice-Consul,  Trieste. 


'  Camposanto,'  from  the  large  bronze  rings  turned 
up  by  their  ploughs.  Circumstances,  which  will 
presently  be  alluded  to,  induce  me  to  hold  that  the 
so-called  cemetery  was  part  of  a  town,  but  there 
are  now  no  means  of  discussing  the  question — 
indeed,  in  these  days  the  stranger  will  not  visit 
the  site,  all  the  diggings  having  been  filled  up. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  Count's  cabinet  is  ad- 
mirably arranged ;  and  this  unique  collection,  which 
may  date  from  more  than  3,000  years  ago,  is  hos- 
pitably shown  to  the  traveller.  The  first  find,  a 
'  pot '  full  of  bones  and  ashes,  was  in  May  1853,  and 
works  were  carried  on  regularly  for  two  years,  care- 
fully superintended  by  the  owner,  aicfa,  as  he  says, 
by  the  Countess. 

The  area  of  excavation  was  an  oblong,  74  metres 
east  and  west  (=  242*9  ft),  by  27  (=  387  ft.)  north 
and  south  ;  or  1,998  square  metres  (=  21,507  sq.  ft). 
Of  the  tombs,  some  had  been  destroyed  by  the  ditch- 
diggers,  but  a  total  of  193  were  found  unopened,  in 
the  same  state  as  left  after  the  '  aeternum  vale ! ' 
Six,  of  the  same  material  as,  but  of  different  and  finer 
form  than,  the  rest,  and  separated,  as  if  for  the  dig- 
nity of  a  higher  race,  by  a  clear  space,  yielded  pecu- 


50  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

liar  articles,  conjectured  to  denote  an  especial  caste. 
The  others  were  divided  from  one  another  by  little 
more  than  a  metre,  but  on  the  western  edge,  and  cir- 
cling towards  the  south,  this  interval  increased  and 
distances  became  irregular.  Here  was  found  a  conical 
stone,  about  one  foot  broad  at  the  base  and  nearly 
two  feet  high,  rising  above  the  tombs :  possibly, 
it  represented  the  Termes  which  consecrated  the 
limits.  The  depth  varied  from  0*30  metre  (=ii'8i 
inches)  to  i'4O  metre  (  =  4  ft.  7  inches)  below  the 
actual  surface.  Fourteen  skeletons,  with  crania 
mostly  brachycephalic,  lay  at  length  supine  ;  with 
the  feet  turned  eastward  ;  with  the  hands  crossed 
over  the  pelvis  after  the  fashion  of  the  ancient 
Egyptians,  and,  as  usual,  with  all  the  funereal 
objects  disposed  on  the  left  side,  except  the  coin, 
which  was  grasped  in  the  right  hand.  Some  few 
were  bent,  like  the  mummies  of  Peru  and  the  Brazil. 
The  sepulchres  represent  four  distinct  shapes,  in 
the  following  proportions  : — 

1.  Those  built  with  pebbles  and  kistvaens  (slabs  of  grit)  .     28 

2.  „  „        pebbles  only 21 

3.  „  „         kistvaens  only 21 

4.  „        without  kistvaens  or  pebbles          .         .         .123 

Total       193 

On   the   walls   of  the    collection-apartment  are 


drawings  and  illustrations  of  the  first  and  most 
interesting  class  of  tombs,  nearly  of  the  natural  size. 
The  following  is  a  reduction. 


They  were  originally  subtumular  or  subterra- 
nean, like  all  the  sepulchres  of  the  primitive  Ita- 
lians :  the  idea  of  sinking  the  sepulchre  probably 
was  that  the  dead  polluted  the  face  of  earth,  sun, 
and  air,  and  should  be  relegated  to  the  hypogaea 

E  2 

52  THE   WORKS  OF  MAN. 

belonging  to  the  infernal  gods  and  manes.  The 
barrow,  which  consisted  of  the  soil  thrown  up  in 
excavation,  showed,  on  removal,  rough  slabs  of  plio- 
cene grit  or  sandstone  from  the  Apennines,  over- 
lying and  projecting  beyond  the  cylinders  or  quasi- 
cylinders  of  water-rolled  stones,  built  wholly  without 
mortar.  Four  were  parallelograms  of  similar  peb- 
bles, measuring  2^69  metres  (  =  8  feet  10  inches)  each 
way ;  the  walls  rose  perpendicularly  to  i  "40  metre 
(=4  feet  7  inches) ;  and  the  top  was  not  horizontal, 
but  sloped  obliquely,  with  a  depression  of  076 
metre  (=2  feet  6  inches)  to  a  central  line  of 
pebbles ;  they  also  contained  many  bronzes  and 
broken  pottery.  The  cylinders  varied  in  height  from 
076  metre  to  1*50  metre  (=4  feet  n  inches); 
the  maximum  diameter  was  1*42  metre  (=4  feet 
8  inches) ;  and  the  lateral  walls,  composed  of  either 
single  or  double  strata  of  pebbles,  averaged  a  metre. 
In  some  of  them  the  funereal  objects  were  stored 
without  separation,  others  contained  quadrangular 
kistvaens  of  six  unworked  slabs,  four  uprights, 
covered  by  a  lid  slightly  concave  at  the  top,  and 
projecting  on  all  sides.  The  flooring  was  either  a 
flag  or  pebbles.  The  kistvaen  also  existed  without 
the  pebbles.  Finally,  of  193  in  this  sepolcreto,  179 


contained  cremated,  mixed  up  with  14  intact,  skele- 
tons. This  proportion  (100  :  7*82)  is  rather  Greek 
than  Roman,  and  we  find  the  system  modified  at  the 
Certosa  and  the  Marzabotto  cemeteries.  The  former, 
out  of  365,  show  115  of  adustion  to  250  of  inhuma- 
tion (46  pyres  to  100  tombs) ;  and  at  the  latter,  again, 
the  cremated  were  in  excess.  Here,  then,  we  have 
a  knotty  point  for  study.  Prof.  Conestabile  ('  Revue 
Arch.,'  October  1874,  p.  253)  makes  the  prehistoric 
peoples  of  Italy  during  the  bronze  age  favour  crema- 
tion, not  only  for  hygienic  purposes,  but  as  a  kind  of 
sacrifice,  and  the  Etruscans,  during  their  national 
existence,  to  prefer  inhumation.  De  Jorio,  an  ex- 
perienced excavator  ('  Metodo  per  rinvenire  e  fru- 
gare  i  sepolcri,'  etc.,  p.  154),  tells  us  that  the  Hel- 
lenes of  Magna  Graecia  burnt  ten  for  one  inhumed, 
and  the  Romans  buried  nine  to  one  burnt.  This, 
however,  is  a  subject  which  begins  with  Homer,  and 
its  intricacy  forbids  all  discussion. 

Inside  of  each  kistvaen  was  found  one  large 
single-handed  urna,  cinerarium,  or  ossuarium  (oo-ro- 
615x73  or  oo-ToSo^sTov)  ;  some  few  bore  signs  of  a  second 
handle,  which  had  been  removed.  I  cannot  but 
regard  this  almost  universal  custom  of  confining  the 
dead  to  ceramic  vases  as  an  attempt  to  restore  them 

54  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

to  the  womb.  All  save  three  had  the  same  shape, 
probably  characteristic  of,  and  made  purposely  for, 
the  tomb  ;  mostly  they  were  black,  and  they  varied 
in  ornament  and  dimensions.  The  position  ranged 
between  vertical  (67),  quite  horizontal  (44),  and 
inclined  at  an  angle  of  45°  (17);  this  was  inten- 
tional, as  pebbles  were  placed  for  supports.  They 
contained  nothing  but  bones,  veritable  '  relics ; ' 
whereas  the  Romans  and  other  races  stored  both 
bones  and  ashes  in  the  urna.  The  remains,  which 
were  not  quite  calcined,  showing  that  the  furnace 
had  consumed  about  two-thirds  of  the  skeleton, 
formed  a  thin  layer  of  some  four  inches.  They 
were  chiefly  carbonised  skull-bones,  fragments  of 
vertebrae,  diaphyses  of  the  longer  limbs,  and  but  few 
teeth  ;  although  Pliny  (N.  H.  vii.  15)  assures  us  that 
these  bones  are  the  only  part  of  the  body  which 
resist  the  action  of  fire,  and  are  not  consumed  with 
the  rest.  As  animal  victims  were  also  thrown 
upon  the  pyre,  a  bit  of  equine  rib  was  found  in 
one  ossuary.  Each  receptacle  was  covered  with 
a  concavo-convex  clay  disk,  or  with  a  large,  deep, 
single-handled  cup,  not  purposely  made.  These  lids 
appeared  to  be  tazze  and  patera,  possibly  used  for 
funereal  libations,  and  for  the  aspersions  of  wine  with 


which  the  pyre-embers  were  extinguished.1  The 
urns  were  planted  about  O'io  metre  (=4  inches)  in 
the  nigra  favilla,  a  stratum  of  ashes  which  averaged 
0*95  metre  (=3  feet  i  inch) ;  it  yielded  no  large 
fragments  of  charcoal,  and  only  a  few  bone-splints 
which  had  escaped  the  pious  '  ossilegium.'  Here 
were  gathered  the  *  munera '  offered  to  the  ghost ; 
bronze  and  iron,  glass  and  amber,  bone  and  clay  ; 
together  with  the  remnants  of  the  grave-clothes  ;  of 
the  rent  raiment  of  friends,  and  bones  of  various 
beasts,  the  offals  of  the  silicernium,  which  the 
Romans  called  obba.  The  shells  of  two  eggs2  were 
found ;  one  near  the  ossuary,  the  other  in  a  cup. 
Each  receptacle  was  always  girt  by  accessory  pots, 
possibly  those  used  at  the  supper.  In  the  kistvaens 
they  rarely  exceeded  eight ;  but  they  were  more 

1  Virgil  says  (JEn.  vi.  227) : '  Relliquias  vino  et  bibulam  lavere  favil- 
lam,'  and  Numa  forbade  wine  to  be  used  where  water  would  suffice. 
The  relations,  after  circumambulating  the  pyre  with  naked  feet  and  un- 
girt  waists,  extinguished  the  fire,  and  the  women  nearest  of  kin  gathered 
the  bones  bit  by  bit,  sprinkled  them  with  milk,  wine,  and  balm,  shook 
them  in  a  linen  cloth,  and  stored  them  in  the  ossuary. 

2  Count  Gozzadini  quotes  : — 

'  Sed  tibi  dimidio  constrictus  cammarus  ovo 
Ponitur,  exigua  feralis  coena  patella.' — Juv.  v.  84. 
' nisi  centum  lustraverit  ovis.' — Ibid.  vi.  517. 

and  Ovid  (Ars.  Am.  ii.  329)  : — 

'  Et  veniat,  quas  lustret  anus  lectumque,  locumque  : 
Praeferat  et  tremula  sulphur  et  ova  manu.' 

56  THE    WORKS   OF  MAN. 

numerous  in  those  tombs  which  were  composed  of 
pebbles  and  of  earth.  The  richest  showed  a  circular 
heap  of  pottery,  about  0*38  metre  (=  i  foot  3 
inches)  high,  by  1*50  metre  (=4  feet  n  inches) 
broad,  and  some  numbering  forty  distinguishable 
items.  They  had  been  'entasses  comme  dans  un 
panier,'  as  Jorio  said  of  the  Magna  Grsecian  sepul- 
chres (p.  154). 

Of  the  ceramic  remains  at  Villanova,  Count 
Gozzadini  ('  Di  un  Sepolcreto,'  etc.,  tables  ii.  iii.  and 
iv.)  gives  65  various  designs,  some  of  them  wheel- 
worked,  and  not  a  few  elegantly  turned,  but  all 
wanting  paint,  and  confirming  the  theory  that  the 
Grecian  art,  imported  with  artificers  by  Demaratus 
of  Corinth,1  was  with  the  Etruscans  an  affair  of 
imitation.  The  two  great  divisions  are  the  black 
and  the  red ;  but  it  is  still  doubtful  whether  the 
former  arises  from  the  quality  of  the  clay  or  from 
the  burning-process.  The  inside  shows  a  paler  line 
of  natural  colour,  and  the  fragments  heated  in  the 
furnace  become  ruddy.  On  the  other  hand,  the 

1  Circa  B.C.  657.  The  well-known  painted  jars  are  most  common 
in  Central  Etruria,  especially  to  the  maritime  cities  and  certain  impor- 
tant points  like  Clusium  (Chiusi),  where  they  were  first  imported. 
Neither  the  port  of  Adria  nor  the  land-route  supplied  the  Eastern 
Federation  till  a  comparatively  late  day. 



red  pottery  contains  a  central  black  diaphragm,  also 
unexplained ;  it  is  limited  on  either  side  by  lines  of 
brick-colour  with  a  smaller  diameter. 

The  late  Professor  Sgarzi  thus  analysed  speci- 
mens of  the  Villanova  pottery  ('  Boll.  d.  corr.  arch.,' 
1837,  p.  30): 

Black  figured 

Red  figured 

Fine  little 

Fine  little 



black  Tazza. 

red  Tazza. 
















Iron  oxide 





Azotised  organic  "I 
matter     .         J 





Water     . 










Totals    . 





Count  Gozzadini,  aided  in  this  casse-tete  by  the 
ingenuity  of  his  wife,  pieced  together  the  crushed 
fragments  of  funereal  potteries,  and  found  them  to 
be  of  the  same  form  with  three  exceptions,  namely, 
red,  unornamented  dolia,  surmounted  by  three  pro- 
tuberances about  34  centimetres  (=  r  foot  i  inch) 
high,  and  apparently  serving  as  anscz.  Of  a  hundred 
only  three  had  double  handles,  contrary  to  the  custom 
of  the  Greeks ;  consequently,  we  should  be  careful 
in  applying  to  them  Hellenic  names.  Another 

58  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

curious  form,  previously  found  only  in  the  Albano 
necropolis,  is  the  double  cone  joined  at  the  base 
— of  this  more  presently.  The  children's  ossua- 
ries averaged  19  centimetres  (=  7*48  inches) ;  the 
adults'  39  centimetres  (=  I  foot  3  inches).  They 
are  mostly  black,  though  a  few  are  red ;  the  ansce 
are  of  many  and  various  shapes — semi-elliptic, 
twisted,  rectilinear,  and  undulated.  The  surface  is 
either  plain  or  adorned ;  the  characteristics  are 
hollow  impressions  (graffiti]  upon  soft  paste,  by  a 
tool  with  three,  four,  or  even  five  equidistant  points, 
raised  in  cameo,  and  thus  making  parallel  lines. 
Other  common  decorations  are 
simple  and  double  pyramids  and 
meanders,  single,  coupled,  or 
interlaced.  The  most  general 
are  lines  of  disks,  different  in 
dimensions,  with  three  concentric 
circles  like  some  of  the  dice  ; 

Here  the^nstru^nt  "has  been     tllCD    COIHC    dotted    pyramidal     and 

turned  to  make  the  different 

serpentine  lines  of  peculiar  shape  ; 
the  latter,  which  are  also  found  on  bronzes,  may 
denote  the  Genius  of  the  Dead,  or  be  emblems 
of  mortality ;  whilst  ducks  and  geese,  living  in  air, 
in  water,  and  on  earth,  show  the  several  abodes  of 


the  phantasm  or  ghost,  which  we  will  not  call  a 
spirit  or  a  soul.  Some  have  nude,  archaic  man- 
nikins,  disposed  in  lines  round  the  vases  ;  they  are 
drawn  as  children  draw,  with  big  oval  heads,  double 
lines  for  bodies,  and  single  lines  for  limbs — perhaps 
they  represent  the  manes  who  watch  over  the 
sepulchre ;  and  the  same  may  be  said  of  the  ser- 
pents. The  accessories  of  the  ossuaries  are  mostly 
patera  and  tazze,  the  five  double  cups  before  figured, 
shaped  like  dice-boxes  with  the  central  diaphragm, 
standing  22  centimetres  (=  8*66  inches)  high,  and 
with  an  interior  diameter  of  16  centimetres  (=  6 '30 
inches)  :  perhaps  they  represent  the  SsVa^  ap^ixv- 
TrsXAov  or  the  6<x-j7rsXXov  of  Homer  (II.  vi.  220),  and 
of  Aristotle  ('  De  Hist.  Animal.'  ix.  40).  A  fre- 
quent ornament  is  the  double  line  of  crosses,  some 
contained  in  circles  :  a  subject  treated  by  the  learned 
Gabrielle  de  Mortillet,  in  '  Le  Signe  de  la  Croix 
avant  le  Christianisme,'  ch.  2.  Finally,  three  ossu- 
aries and  one  black  patera  (Numa  nigrum  catinum) 
have  each  a  meander,  not  engraved,  but  made  by 
a  white  band  of  superimposed  paste  unhardened 
in  the  fire.  This,  perhaps,  is  an  approach  to 

The  so-called  clay  spindles  found  at  Villanova 

60  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

number  169,  and  of  these  only  3  bear  makers' 
marks.1  As  7  were  yielded  by  a  single  tomb,  and 
an  accessory  vase  contained  12,  Count  Gozzadini 
suggests  that  they  were  the  glandules  attached  to 
the  robe,  intended  to  preserve  the  graceful  form  ; 
for  instance,  in  the  pallium  of  Jupiter,  the  tunic 
of  Minerva,  the  chlamys  of  the  Augustan  lares, 
and  the  peplum  of  Hope  and  of  the  tragedian.  He 
assigns  the  same  office  to  24  bronze  globes  and 
spheroids,  the  '  clavi '  of  Visconti,  of  which  8  were 
produced  by  one  sepulchre ;  each  was  attached  to 
a  ring,  and  the  whole  weighed  24  to  33  grammes 
(  =  37O'37  to  509 '26  grains  avoir.).  He  would  thus 
explain  that  debated  passage  in  Horace  (Epist.  i. 
6,  50) :— 

Mercemur  servum  qui  dictet  nomina,  Isevum 
Qui  fodiat  latus,  et  cogat  trans  pondera  dextram 

The  metal  articles  were  mostly  bronze,  with  a 
few  iron.  Analysis  of  the  former  {fibula}  gave 
copper  84*26  parts,  and  15*74  of  tin.  Of  the  nine 
specimens  of  ess  rude,  irregularly  shaped  (7),  and 

1  Count  Gozzadini  (Di  un  Sepolcreto,  etc.,  p.  20)  published  eighteen 
of  these  makers'  marks,  which  are  either  upon  the  edges,  the  bellies, 
or  the  bottoms  of  the  vases.  Usually  they  are  supposed  to  show  the 
proprietor  or  the  value  of  the  article ;  they  may  be  so  on  the  two 
fibulce  of  Villanova,  but  these  valueless  bits  of  clay  would  hardly 
deserve  the  honour. 


parallelopipedons  (2),  as  if  cut  from  an  ingot ;  the 
smallest  weighed  12-52,  and  the  largest  64' 1 8 
grammes  (=  193^2 1  to  989^2  grains  avoir.).  Count 
Gozzadini,  finding  them  only  in  four  tombs  out  of 
193,  doubts  their  being  Charon's  fee — the  conclusion 
is  against  Villanova  being  purely  Etruscan.  Of 
the  §7$  fibula,  550  were  bronze,  offering  at  least  n 
several  types  ;  many  were  in  pairs,  as  if  used  double 
to  fasten  the  '  plaid  ; '  and  one  tomb  produced  30, 
several  of  them  twisted  and  broken.  The  hollow 
heads  were  stuffed  with  a  paste  containing  65  per 
cent,  of  alum,  oxide  of  iron  and  carbonate  of  lime, 
30  of  silex,  and  the  rest  water  and  loss  ;  the  enamel, 
which  was  generally  dark  blue  and  sometimes  bright 
yellow,  was  composed  of  lime,  silex,  and  oxides  of 
iron  and  copper.  The  shapes  are  simple,  delicate, 
and  elegant,  with  fine  curves  and  clearly  cast 
angles  ;  the  elongated  forms  explain  why  long,  lean 
Junius  was  called  'fibula  ferrea'  (Quinctil.  vi.  3)  ; 
and  the  ornaments  are  as  various  as  the  modules. 
Here  a  bird  of  many-coloured  glass  stands  in  relief; 
there  the  metal  contains  a  bit  of  amber,  which  the 
old  Etruscans  appear  to  have  valued  as  highly  as 
the  modern  Somal.1  Others  had  chains,  beads  of 

1  Prof.  Capellini  (Congresso  Internazionale,ec.,nel  1874.  Bologna  : 

62  THE    WORKS   OF  MAN. 

blue  glass,  and  similar  materials,  with  pincers,  and 
decorations,  either  pendent,  or  strung  to  the  convex 

The  hair-pins  numbered  53,  besides  the  many 
which  crumbled  to  pieces,  and  6  were  found  in  a 
single  tomb.  The  large,  hollow  heads  were  stuffed, 
like  they£<^/^,  with  siliceous  paste,  and  the  blade  was 
long  enough  to  be  used  by  Fulvia,  Herodias,  or 
the  Trasteverian  virago.  Some  of  these  served  to 
retain  the  hair  in  position,  and  others  are  the 
discriminates — so  called  from  the  frontal  discrimen 
(parting)  which,  in  the  days  of  Tertullian,  dis- 
tinguished the  matron  from  the  maiden.  Many  of 
the  shapes  are  still  preserved  by  the  peasantry  of 
Polesina,  and  other  parts  of  Italy.  There  were  also 
bundles  of  rings,  29  items  in  one  sepulchre,  which, 
perhaps,  were  also  used  for  supporting  the  hair. 
We  find  in  Martial  (ii.  66) : 

Unus  de  toto  peccaverat  orbe  comarum 
Annulus,  incerta  non  bene  fixus  acu. 

The  '  tutulus,'  a  pyramidal  or  conical  Etrus- 
can cap,  more  or  less  acute,  which  represented  the 

Gamberini  e  Parmeggiani,  1874)  discusses  the  Bolognese  amber — a 
red,  not  a  polychroic,  variety,  which  is  still  found  at  Scanello,  and  about 
Castel  S.  Pietro  ;  whilst  the  polychroic  has  recently  been  discovered 
in  the  Cesenate.  Thus  the  Umbrians  and  the  Etruscans  had  no  need  to 
seek  the  semi-mineral  in  Sicily  or  on  the  Baltic  shores. 


modern  chignon,  also  required  some  such  support  * 
besides  the  teenies  (fillets)  and  the  bronze  plates, 
17  millimetres  broad,  which  resembled  the  a^Troxs^ 
of  the  Greek  belles.  There  were  rings  of  other 
sorts,  especially  groups  of  fives  passing  through  a 
large  circle  which  bore  a  peduncle.  The  average 
diameter  was  8  millimetres  (=  3'  15  inches)  ;  a 
single  ossuary  yielded  46  bunches,  besides  578 
scattered  specimens  ;  they  were,  probably,  the  de- 
corations of  a  dress  consumed  on  the  rogus,  and, 
though  cumbrous,  they  are  not  more  so  than  the 
'  jets  '  still  in  fashion. 

The  small  number  (26)  of  bracelets,  large  and 
massive,  thin  and  cylindrical,  straight  and  twisted, 
shows  that  these  articles  were  not  of  universal  use, 
as  we  might  expect  to  find  amongst  a  people 
coming  from  the  East.  Some  are  TrspixdpTria 
(wristlets),  others  bracelets  proper,  worn  by  both 
sexes  upon  the  upper  arm  (7rspi&pa%tovia}  ;  a  single 
skeleton  had  an  iron  specimen,  probably  valuable 
in  those  times.  One  is  marked  with  the  broad 
arrow  J,  ;  it  also  appears  on  the  pottery,  on  a 

1  '  Tot  premit  ordinibus,  tot  adhuc  compagibus  altum 
caput'  (Juvenal,  vi.  502),  is  painfully  true  in  1875.  The  tutuhts,  or 
lofty  conical  cap  of  the  priest,  is  worn  by  women  in  the  Grotta  delle 
Bighe  (Dennis,  i.  330  and  341). 

64  THE    WORKS   OF  MAN. 

bronze  hatchet  from  Villanova,  on  a  cyst  found 
near  Bologna,  and  on  a  carved  ivory  in  the  Vulci 
necropolis.  Some  are  bent  and  broken,  evidently 
by  a  heavy  instrument. 

The  clavi,  or  buttons,  8  millimetres  (=  3*15 
inches)  in  breadth,  and  199  in  number,  might  have 
been  applied  to  the  peplum  or  tunic.  The  ossuary 
used  also  to  be  similarly  draped  in  very  ancient 
times ;  and  our  modern  churchyards  still  show  its 
descendant  in  the  shape  of  a  veiled  urn — a  mean- 
ingless article  until  we  again  begin  to  '  cremate.' 
The  other  buttons  were,  possibly,  rather  ornaments 
than  intended  for  buttoning.1 

The  warlike  weapons  were  two  thick  and  heavy 
lance-heads,  with  tangs  to  fit  into  the  shaft — the 
lance  is  believed,  despite  Herodotus,  to  be  of 
Etruscan  origin.  Of  the  Paalstab  or  hatchets  (?) 
two  were  of  iron  and  three  of  bronze.  One  of  the 

1  I  have  never  been  able  to  arrive  at  any  conclusion  concerning 
the  date  when  the  button-hole  originated.  The  oldest  form,  preserved 
by  the  peoples  of  the  nearer  East,  is  the  loop  which  encircles  the 
button.  In  Prof.  Nicolucci's  Age  de  la  pierre  dans  les  Provinces 
Napolitaines,  published  by  the  Congres,  he  remarks  of  (p.  32)  five 
almond-shaped  stones  :  'J'ignore  a  quoi  les  instruments  pouvaient 
servir,  mais  on  peut  penser  ou  que  ce  sont  des  poingons  a  double 
pointe  .  .  .  ou  un  bouton  a  fermoir  pour  ve'tements,  parceque,  dtroite- 
ment  serre*s  au  milieu  avec  un  fil  sur  une  peau  ou  sur  du  drap,  ils 
pouvaient  etre  commode'ment  introduits  dans  un  oeillet,  et  tenir  les 
pieces  de  vetement  solidement  serre'es.' 


latter,  found   broken    into   four   twisted   fragments, 
is  remarkable  for  the  disposition  of  its  wings  and 
for  the  length,  9  centimetres  (=  3*54  inches),  being 
exactly  half  the  breadth.     The  other,  measuring  1 7 
centimetres  (=    6^69   inches)  long,  and    i6\  (  =  6*5 
inches)    broad,    has    the   wings    or    lateral    points 
curved  ;  and  the  unusually  thin  blade  is  only  i  milli- 
metre (=  0*04   of  an  inch)  thick  ;    it  might  have 
been  used  in  religious   ceremonies   or  as  a  votive 
offering,  like   the  large    bronzes  from  the   Danish 
turbaries   described   by  Worsaae.     There   are  five 
smaller   articles   (axes  ?),  between   8  and    1 1   centi- 
metres (=  3-15  to  4-33  inches)  long,  by  5  (=  1-97 
inch)    broad ;    and    five    have    sockets    instead    of 
grooves.    One  shows  an  iron  edge  set  in  the  bronze, 
which  would  suggest  the  baser  metal  to  have  been 
still  valuable  ;  yet  18  are  wholly  iron  ;  and  another 
bears  the  wedge  V-     Two  little  archaic  horses  pro- 
bably  belonged   to   the   bridle-bit,    offerings    made 
when  the  steed  was  slain  to  carry  the  ghost  into 
what  Dahome  calls  Kutome,  or  Dead  Man's  Land. 

The  cultri  number  10  iron  to  18  bronze,  which 
may  almost  be  called  copper,  as  the  percentage  of 
tin  is  only  3*93.  The  very  thin  handles  of  wood 
or  bone  were  rivetted  by  short  screws.  The  most 




peculiar,  but  by  no  means,  as  has  been  stated,  pecu- 
liarly characteristic  of  Felsina,  are  a  dozen  'ferra- 
menta  lunata'  (Columella  De  R.R.  xii.  56),  with  edges 
only  in  the  convex  parts  of  the  crescents.  These  have 
been  found  in  the  islands  of  the  Greek  Archipelago, 
in  Attica,  Bceotia,  in  many  parts  of  Etruria,  and 
even  north  of  the  Alps.  The  fineness  of  the  blade 
suggests  the  razor,  which  India  preserves  in  the 
hatchet  shape. 


Thus  we  find  in  Martial  (ii.  58), 

Sed  fuerit  curva  cum  tuta  novacula  theca 
Frangam  tonsori  crura  manusque  simul ; 1 

and  Pliny  (N.H.  xxxii.    5),  terms  a  fish  'novacula 

1  Varro  (de  R.  R.  ii.  cap.  n)  tells  us  that  the  Romans  began  to 
shave  about  the  fifth  century  u.C.     But  the  learned  Prof.  Rocchi  has 


seu  orbis.'  Ten  large  and  heavy  iron  knives,  some 
with  handles  of  the  same  metal,  are  the  '  clunacula,' 
used  to  cut  up  the  victims,  and  there  are  a  few 
shovel-shaped  articles,  with  ornamental  hilts  and 
bevelled  edges,  which  may  have  served  as  bis- 
touries to  inspect  the  entrails. 

Six  bronzes,  composed  of  two  concentric  circles 
united  by  five  rays,  may  be phalerce or  horse-frontlets  ; 
but  no  other  museum  possesses  anything  like  them. 



Equally  mysterious  are  the  hatchet-shaped 
bronzes,  with  large  rings  for  handles,  and  in  some 
cases  profusely  ornamented  on  both  sides.  They 

shown  that  this  was  a  custom  of  the  Etruscans  long  before  that  period. 
The  cemetery  of  Alba  Longa  and  the  oldest  Italic  tombs  have  not 
yielded  razors.  Prof.  Lignana  (Bullet.  delF  Inst.  Arch.  Rom.  Jan.- 
Feb.  '75),  considering  the  words  Ksura  (Rig-Veda},  £vp6v  (Iliad,  x.  173, 
£7Ti  Kvpov  'iararai  cr/e^c),  the  German  scheere  (  =  shears),  holds  that  the 
shaving  implement  was  known  to  the  Indo-European  race  before  its 

F  2 



are  associated  with  small  elongated  rods  of  bronze 
capped  at  either  end,  and  this  suggested  that 
the  plate  is  a  trigonum  or  deltaton ;  in  fact,  a 
gong  sounded  with  the  virgula.  Real  tintinnabula 
were  known  to  the  Etruscans,  but  that  would  not 
hinder  them  from  using  an  article  so  common 

throughout  the  East.  On  the  other  hand,  when 
struck  they  yield  no  sound  ;  they  are  evidently  unfit 
for  cutting,  and  the  bronze  nails  always  found  near 
them  suggest  that  they  were  mounted  on  staves  and 
were  carried  in  procession — the  'pelekys,'  or  axe, 
being  an  amulet  against  fascination.  The  Canadian, 


or  rather  Catholic,  superstition  of  church-bells  fright- 
ening away  evil  spirits  is  found  in  Ovid  (Fast.  v.  4, 


Temesaeaque  concrepat  aera 
Et  rogat  ut  tectis  exeat  umbra  suis. 

On  which  Gierig  remarks  :  '  JEris  autem  tinnitum 
aptum  esse  habitum  ad  spectra  ejicienda  docet 
Neapolis  ; '  and  the  Scholiast  of  Theocritus  teaches 
us  that  the  sound  of  brass  was  used  in  the  most 
sacred  rites  by  reason  of  its  purity,  and  because 
it  expelled  abominations.  Hence  the  bells  was 
adopted  by  Christianity  and  rejected  by  El  Islam. 

Three  bronzes,  whose  long,  broad  handles  and 
rounded  heads  represent  capcdines  or  cup-ladles  for 
drawing  wine  during  the  sacrifices  have  also  been 
found  ;  one  in  a  clay  pot,  probably  the  tirnnla  fictilis 
serving  for  the  same  object ;  while  a  second  was 
taken  from  one  of  the  six  distinguished  tombs.  The 
latter  also  yielded  an  inverted  cone,  with  two  move- 
able  handles,  to  prevent  the  liquor  being  spilt,  and  a 
cover  with  the  apical  knob  :  this  was  probably  the 
amiila  or  acquiminarium  for  the  lustration  water, 
not  the  situla  for  sacrificial  wine.  Here  were  nails 
of  sorts,  one  bearing  on  its  broad  head  the  cross, 
interlaced  with  the  five  circles  of  the  mystic  die.  It 

70  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

is  suggested  that  the  latter  may  have  been  used 
either  for  the  coffin,  or  as  an  offering  to  Charon,  in 
case  his  barque  required  repair.  Less  intelligible 
are  the  seven  hollow  fusiform  rods  with  raised  cir- 
cles and  hatted  heads  which  so  frequently  occur. 
Some  antiquaries  have  seen  in  them 
spindles,  or  'wharrow  spindles' — those 
used  when  walking.  But  the  practical 
fileuse  declared  that  they  are  of  no  ac- 
count for  her  trade. 

It  is  a  proof  of  high  antiquity  that 
only  one  '  idol '  or  human  figure  for 
worship  was  found.  Better  proportioned 
than  are  most  archaic  specimens,  it 
appears,  judging  from  the  bosom,  to  be 
a  woman  ;  and  there  are  signs  of  her 
having  been  placed  upon  a  pedestal. 
The  head  bears  the  symbolic  circle, 
with  two  reversed  birds,  whilst  another 
pair  of  volatiles  perches  upon  the 
haunches  ;  and  her  arms  appear  to  be  holding  two 
spherical  bodies.  All  who  are  familiar  with  modern 
art  in  Egypt,  Syria,  and  Persia  will  recognise  these 
bird  ornaments.  The  other  figures  are  those  on 
pottery  and  the  archaic  horses  before  mentioned. 


Amongst  minor  matters  are  a  small  bronze 
sphere  with  two  projecting  points  ;  a  bronze  ring 
with  the  mystic  Tau ;  a  little  bronze  handle  richly 
adorned ;  four  volsellce  (tweezers) ;  an  aurisculpium 
(ear-pick) ;  five  needles  and  nine  bronze  brooches. 
The  bone  implements  are  fibulce,  a  cylinder  (a 
handle  ?),  and  other  articles  of  less  importance. 

As  regards  the  tomb-people,  Count  Gozzadini, 
judging  from  the  phase  of  art  and  from  the  pre- 
sence of  the  as  rude — a  coin  unknown  to  the 
days  of  Romulus1 — determines  Villanova  to  be  not 
Umbrian,  but  Etruscan,  of  the  earliest  iron  age, 
whose  apogee  of  civilisation  preceded  the  founda- 
tion of  Rome.  He  utterly  rejects  the  Gauls  both 

1  With  great  satisfaction  I  see  Mr.  J.  H.  Parker,  C.B.,  in  his 
Archceology  of  Rome  (2  vols.  :  Murray,  1874),  sturdily  preserving 
these  time-honoured  names,  and  thus  protesting  against  the  vague, 
nebulous,  wunderbar  myth-theories  with  which  Germany  during  the 
last  generation  has  infected  the  exact,  practical,  and  matter-of-fact 
English  mind.  Perizonius,  Pouilly,  and  Beaufort  began  the  heresy, 
but  left  no  school.  As  usual,  it  was  adopted  by  the  Germans,  who 
carry  out,  but  who  do  not  invent ;  and  Niebuhr — so  great  as  a  his- 
torian, so  small  as  a  topographer,  geographer,  and  archaeologist — took 
it  up  as  an  especial  hobby.  It  has  now  tyrannised  over  the  English 
mind  for  thirty-seven  years,  and  the  period  (1825-1862)  was  unhappily 
that  when  political  and  other  matters  introduced  a  kind  of  Teutono- 
mania  into  our  island.  The  reaction  began  with  M.  J.  J.  Ampere's 
Histoire  Romaine  a  Rome  (1862);  and  lately  M.  F.  Max  Miiller's  theory 
has  successfully  been  proved  a  'solar  myth' — with  a  tendency,  I  might 
add,  towards  the  earth's  satellite. 

72  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

here  and  at  Marzabotto.1  He  is  joined  by  Henzen, 
who,  with  a  host  of  others,  first  judged  the  sepul- 
chres, chiefly  from  their  shape,  to  be  Keltic  ;  by  Dr. 
Forchhammer ;  by  MM.  Minervini  and  Fabretti 
(the  great  Etruscologue) ;  and  by  Prof.  Carl  Vogt,2 
whose  outspoken  theories  upon  the  subject  of  faith, 
e.g.  '  L'Etre  Superieur  est  un  produit  de  1'ignor- 
ance  et  de  la  peur,'  and  upon  the  friendship  be- 
tween Mr.  Calvert  and  King  Cakombau  (p.  307), 
must  have  somewhat  startled  the  '  respectables '  of 
the  Bologna  Congress.  The  late  Professor  Orioli, 
writing  anonymously  in  the  '  Arcadia '  paper  (T. 
412-414,  p.  58),  offered  the  three  following  objec- 
tions : — 

i.  The  tombs  were    neither  rock-hewn,  nor  of 

1  '  L'e'le'ment  e"trusque  de  Marzabotto  est  sans  melange  avec  1'e'le'- 
ment  gaulois  '  (Extrait  des  matSriaux  pour  Vhistoire  primitive  de 
rhomme:  Toulouse,  1873). 

2  In  '  Anthropophagie  et  Sacrifices  humains'  (Congres,  pp.  295- 
328)  man  is  successively  insectivorous,  frugivorous,  and  carnivorous, 
or  rather  anthropophagous  (p.  296).     Cannibalism  denotes  a  relatively 
advanced  civilisation  (p.  298).     Every  religion  is,  without  exception, 
'  1'  enfant  de  la  peur  et  del'ignorance'  (p.  300);  the  'Deity  is  unknown,  and 
religion  is  the  worship  of  the  inconnu'  (ibid.};  'Dieu  est  un  superlatif, 
dont  le  positif  est  1'homme'  (ibid.};   'les  furieux  couronne's  de  1'ancien 
Testament'  (p.  308);  human  sacrifice  amongst  the  ancient  Israelites 
(p.  321);  and  a  few  other  vigorous  assertions  of  the  kind,  must  have 
been  somewhat  '  shokin' '  to  the  sons  of  that '  terre  predestined,'  who 
combine  easy  incuriousness  with  a  strong  prepossession  in  favour  of 
'  leaving  things  alone.' 


opus  quadratum,  nor  barrow-covered,  after  Rasennic 

2.  They  contained  articles  of  small  value. 

3.  They    had    few    weapons — he    might    have 
added,  they  lacked  inscriptions. 

He  therefore  determined  the  tenants  to  be  of 
barbarous  strain,  aborigines,  Pelasgi,  Umbrians — a 
theory  also  supported  by  the  distinguished  Professor 
G.  Nicolucci — or  even  the  Boii  Gauls,  who  ended 
the  Etruscan  rule  in  the  fourth  century  of  Rome. 
M.  de  Mortillet  assigned  them  to  the  interval  be- 
tween the  bronze  age  and  the  Etruscan  occupation, 
and,  '  pour  ne  rien  prejuger  sous  le  rapport  his- 
torique,'  he  prudently  indicated  the  epoch  as  that  of 
early  Rome,  First  Iron.  Prof.  Calori  reminds  us 
of  Polybius  (ii.  17),  who  declares  that  the  adjacent 
Gauls  trafficked  with  the  Etruscans,  and  that  the 
only  art  or  science  known  to  the  former  was  agricul- 
ture. This  assertion,  however,  is  somewhat  modi- 
fied in  the  matter  of  metal  by  Livy  (xxxvi.  40) ;  in 
ornamentation  by  Diodorus  Siculus  (v.  27-30) ;  and, 
finally,  by  modern  investigation.  That  distinguished 
authority,  however,  is  positive  that  '  1'antica  necro- 
poli  alia  Certosa  e  Etrusca,  etruschissima.'  Finally, 
Prof.  Count  J-  Conestabile  (pp.  74-81,  '  Monumenti 

74  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

e  Annali  di  Corr.  Arch.,'  1856),  comparing  Villanova 
with  Stadler  in  the  Trentine,  draws  from  the  archi- 
tectonic forms  and  the  interior  disposition  of  the 
sepulchres  the  two  following  conclusions  : — 

1.  The  Etruscans  everywhere  varied  their  struc- 
tures to  conform  with  material  means  and  with  local 

2.  The  northern  Etruscans  did  not  display  in 
their  cemeteries  scattered  near  the  Po  and  about  its 
Campagna  the  wealth  and  luxury  of  Middle  Etruria. 
The  latter  has  ever  been  the  great  centre,  the  chief, 
the  most  evident,  and  the  most  durable  image  of  the 
civilisation  and  power  of  the  race — a  development 
which,  we  may  add,  resulted   from  commerce  with 
Greece  and  the  nearer  East 

Despite  this  weight  of  authority,  I  must  still 
withhold  judgment.  The  late  Count  Giovanni  da 
Schio  (loc.  cit.  p.  15,  etc.)  seems  to  have  shown 
satisfactorily  enough  that,  in  the  Vicentine,  Gallic 
are  freely  mixed  with  Etruscan  local  names.  But 
a  stronger  reason  is  the  similarity  of  the  catacombs 
in  Guernsey,  not  to  mention  other  places,  with  these 
so-called  Etruscan  remains.  The  former  we  know 
to  be  Keltic  from  such  names  as  '  Pouquelaye ' 
(Pwca= fairy,  and  lies,  a  lay  or  place),  '  Les  Rocques 


Brayes'  (in  Breton,  '  Roc'h  Braz,'  les  grosses  pierres )  \ 
and  '  L'autel  du  Tus '  (or  Thus),  pronounced 
'  1'autel  du  Dehus ' — evidently  the  Dus  or  Dusius  of 
the  Gauls.  In  Guernsey  we  have  the  hougue  or 
cairn ;  the  kistvaen  (Chambre  des  Fe'es)  containing 
human  ashes,  pottery,  celts,  and  arrow-heads ;  pro- 
tected by  cap-stones  or  ledgers,  and  floored  with 
irregular  slabs  and  round,  smooth,  peddles  (for  in- 
stance, at  La  Creux  des  Fees) ;  '  in  which  were 
deposited'  ('Hist,  of  Guernsey'  by  Jonathan  Dun- 
can. London:  Longmans,  1841)  '  the  bones,  urns, 
and  other  vessels,  with  such  offerings  as  the  zeal  or 
affection  of  the  friends  of  the  deceased  was  disposed 
to  leave  with  them/ 

I  would  not  strain  the  resemblance.  The  kist- 
vaen was  found  by  Capt.  Congreve,  and,  since  his 
day  (1845),  by  many  explorers  in  India  and  other 
parts  of  Asia.  But  the  slab  and  pebble  floorings, 
which  argue  that  the  dead  would  pollute  the  sacred 
face  of  earth,  are  highly  suspicious  features,  sug- 
gesting identity  of  race.  On  the  other  hand,  we 
shall  find  the  huts  parquetted  with  this  rudest  of 
mosaic  which  still  forms  the  pavement  in  the  streets 
of  North  Italian  towns,  and  the  'long  home'  in 
Etruria  is  often  a  palpable  copy  of  the  home.  And, 

76  THE    WORKS  OF  MAN. 

again,  I  have  shown  (p.  51,  '  Anthropologia,'  No.  T, 
October,  1873),  that  the  Tupi  Brazilians  buried 
water-rolled  pebbles  as  well  as  stone  implements 
with  their  dead. 


'L'fitrurie,  par  la  civilisation  Romaine,  a  hate  la  civilisation  de 
Phumanite  toute  entiere,  ou  du  moins  elle  lui  a  laisse  par  une  longue 
suite  des  siecles  1'empreinte  de  son  caractere' 

HUMBOLDT,   Cosmos  (n.) 




TAKING  Bologna  as  a  centre,  the  whole  circle,  with 
a  radius  of  22  kilometres,  and  especially  the  line  of 
the  Via  ^Emilia,  appears  to  be  one  vast  repository 
of  Etruscan  antiquities.  As  early  as  1848  Sig. 
G.  Dozza  discovered  on  the  Ronzano  hill,  4  kilo- 
metres west-south-west  of  the  city,  various  bronzes  ; 
a  sword,  with  broken  blade  and  handle  ;  two  bridle- 
bits,  with  small  figures  of  horses  ;  and  a  fragment 
of  the  fusiform  and  hatted  rod  before  alluded  to. 
Three  years  afterwards  Sig.  P.  Calari  unearthed 
human  skeletons,  bronzes,  and  coloured  glass,  near 
Sta.  Maddalena  di  Cazzano,  15  kilometres  on  the 
riverine  plains  to  the  east- north-east.  In  1854  the 
property  of  Marchese  Amorini,  13  kilometres  east- 
south-east  of  Bologna,  and  6^  from  Villanova, 
disclosed  a  sepulchre  containing  yftfo/fe,  and  a 
hair-pin  adorned  with  glass.  In  this  neighbourhood 
an  estate  belonging  to  the  Marchese  Lodovico 


Mariscotti   yielded   such    a   quantity   of  laminated 
gold  wire — an  article  found  for  the  first  time  in  the 
Bolognese — that   it   was   secretly  sold   for   a   good 
round  sum,  and  to  the  great  loss  of  archaeologists : 
presently    an  ossuary  disclosed   the  true   character 
of    the  find.      In    1860  a  slab  and  pebble-rivetted 
kistvaen  came  to  light  in  the  parish  Delle  Lagune, 
where    the    small    torrential    '  Rio    Mavor '   breaks 
through    the    Castlar    gorge.     It    contained    black 
pottery ;  clay   '  dumb-bells '    (see   Sect,  iv.)  marked 
with    a    wedge    (V) ;    hair-pins ;   and   a    score   of 
bronze  fibula  adorned   with   amber  and  figures  of 
birds.     Six  kilometres  farther  from  the   capital,   in 
the    parish    of  Canovella,    nearly  opposite    Marza- 
botto,     appeared     two    crescent-shaped    cultri    or 
novacultz,    and    brooches    {fibultz],    with    beads   of 
glass  and   amber.     At    Ramonte,    in   the   opposite 
mountains  of  Medelana,   were   found  pottery  ;  cir- 
cular  bones  with  engraved   lines  ;    two  bridle-bits  ; 
a  fusiform,  hatted  rod ;  and  a  bronze  ladle  with  a 
handle  like  an  S  inverted.     In  1865  at  Pontecchio, 
along  the  Reno,  about   7    kilometres   distant   from 
Bologna,  and  beyond  Ronzano,  a  kistvaen,  resem- 
bling   those  of  Villanova,  was  opened  by  Sig.   C. 
Monari,  who  gave  the  contents  to  the  Communal 


Museum  ;  here  also  Sig.  Marconi  found  a  crescent- 
shaped  cutting-instrument.  In  1866,  below  the 
hills  near  the  Ghiaie  torrent,  close  to  the  village 
of  Bazzano,  22  kilometres  west-north-west  of  Fel- 
sina  appeared  ossuaries,  fusiform  rods,  cylinders, 
fibtila,  stamped  pottery,  and  other  articles.  At  the 
Comune  di  Liano,  near  the  Via  Emilia,  in  1869, 
ossuaries  and  bronzes,  and  shortly  afterwards  other 
similar  articles  brought  from  the  mountainous  parish 
of  Riosto,  distant  1 5  kilometres,  became  the  property 
of  Dr.  L.  Foresti. 

Finds  were  made  inside  the  new  and  outside  the 
ancient  city,  at  the  Piazzale  S.  Domenico  ;  in  the  Via 
di  S.  Petronio  Vecchio  ;  in  the  Ca  de'  Tortorelli 
(now  Palazzo  Malvasia) ;  at  the  Pradello  ;  and  in  the 
Arsenale  Militare.  The  three  latter  are  especially 
interesting,  because  they  disclose  the  remains  of 
Old  Felsina  to  the  broad  daylight  of  the  nineteenth 
century ;  they  define  the  eastern,  western,  and 
southern  limits  of  what  Pliny,  describing  the  Padan 
or  eighth  region  of  Italy,  calls  (N.  H.  iii.  20) 
'  Bononia  Felsina  vocitata  cum  princeps  Hetruriae 
esset' 1  And  here  I  would  warn  my  readers  that 

1  The  translators, '  Bostock  and  Riley'(Bohn,  1855),  remark  (vol. 
i.  p.  241)  upon  the  word  Bononia:  '  The  modern  Bologna  stands  on  its 


Bologna  is  split,  Etruscologically  speaking,  into  two 
camps.  These,  under  Gozzadini,  the  man  of  science 
and  literature,  everywhere  see  the  necropolis  and 
the  sepulchre.  Those,  headed  by  Zannoni,  the  man 
of  practice  and  experiment,  find  remains  of  house 
and  home  where  their  opponents  detect  only  the 
long  home.  This  difference  will  be  especially 
noticed  when  we  visit  Marzabotto. 

The  Tortorelli  mine  was  struck  in  1856  when 
Count  Ercole  Malvasia  was  strengthening  the  found- 
ations of  the  old  palace  (No.  262)  to  support  new 
buildings.  The  site  is  the  Via  Maggiore,  doubtless 
a  section  of  the  Via  ^Emilia,  outside  the  two  chief 
leaning  towers,  Asinelli  and  Garisanda.  These 
'  donkeys'  ears '  formed  in  the  sixteenth  century 
the  Ravennese  gateway,  which  was  probably  added 
to  the  city  in  the  eleventh  century.  Of  the  '  Torr 
dai  Asnie '  I  may  remark  that  it  is  the  seventeenth 
tallest  building  in  the  civilised  world — only  2\ 
metres  lower  than  St.  Paul's.  A  local  poet  sings 
of  it  as  follows  : — 

In  sta  Cittk  al  fra  quel  d'  i  Strazzarno 

Ch'  ha  la  Torr  dai  Asnie,  e  la  Mozza  indrito. 

The    Tortorelli  excavations  were   directed  and 

site,  and  there  are  but  few  remains  of  antiquity  to  be  seen.'  A  score  of 
years  has  brought  with  it  many  changes. 


described  in  detail  by  Count  Gozzadini  ('  Di  alcuni 
antichi  sepolcri  felsinei,'   vol.  iv.  pp.  74   et  seq.,  in 
the  Neapolitan  paper  ' Giambattisto  Vico,'  1857,  and 
in   the   opuscule    '  Di   alcuni  sepolcri   della  necro- 
poli  felsinea,  Bologna:'    Fava  e  Garagnani,   1868). 
Remains  judged  to  be  Roman  were   found   at  the 
usual  depth  of  two   metres ;    eight   sepulchres,   of 
which    three    were    intact,    lay    one    metre    below 
their     successors,     and    extended    two    metres    in 
depth,  forming  the  normal  total  of  five   below  the 
actual  surface.     Judging  from  the  known  cemeteries 
about  Bologna,  a  small  part  of  this  mine  has  been 
worked    and    much    is    still   hidden   underground. 
The    mortuary   vases  were   eight  ossuaries,    some- 
times set  obliquely ;  potoria,  possibly,  for  the  silicer- 
nium;1  the  crater  of  purely  Etruscan  shape,  and 
the  various  tazze,  cups,  cup-covers,  and  accessories 
of  the  tomb.    Many  were  beautifully  shaped,  wheel- 
made,  hand-smoothed,  polished  not  varnished,  and 
adorned  with  graffiti?     The  metals  are  represented 

1  This  mortuary  feast,  which  survives  in  our  cake  and  wine,  con- 
sisted of  meat,  bread,  eggs,  beans,  lettuce,  lentils,  salt  and  cates,  espe- 
cially the  mustacea  and  the  crustula  (Kirchm.  de  Funer.,  &c.,  p.  521). 

2  The   English  reader,  accustomed  to  our  sense  of  this  word — 
'  scrawlings '  or '  scribblings '  on  walls,  &c. — will  note  that  in  this  paper 
it  also  is  used  after  the   Italian  fashion  (graffito  being  opposed  to 
liscio,  smooth)  for  denoting  such  marks  as  toolings  on  pottery. 

G  2 



by  a  single  piece  of  oxidised  iron,  arguing  a  higher 
antiquity  than  the  more  distant  tombs  ;  and  by 
many  bronzes,  crescent-shaped  knives,  fusiform 
rods,  fibula,  nails,  and  an  armilla  :  a  bit  of  amber, 
and  part  of  the  dorsal  column  of  a  young  pike 


(Exos  Lucius,  Linn.),  which  may  have  contributed 
towards  the  banquet,  were  also  picked  up.  The 
most  curious  article  is  a  stela,  showing,  in  very  flat 
relief,  two  calves  erect  and  facing  gardant,  each 


with  the  near  forehoof  on  the  bracts  of  a  caulis. 
The  shape  is  to  the  highest  degree  archaic,  this 
curious  monument  was  presented  by  Count  Ercole 
Malvasia  to  the  Archaeological  Museum  of  the 

At  the  Pradello  (Pratello)  on  the  opposite  or 
western  side  of  Felsina,  within  the  modern  gate  S. 
Isaia,  upon  the  properties  Borghi  Mamo  and  Casa 
Grandi,  appeared  in  1873  certain  rernains,  which 
Count  Gozzadini  judged,  from  a  gold  and  figured 
mirror,  to  be  sepulchres  ('  Rapporto  alia  R.  Deputa- 
zione  di  stor.  patria  per  la  Romagna,'  1873),  and 
which  Cav.  Zannoni  seems  to  have  established  as 
huts  ('  Cenno  sugli  Scavi  della  Via  del  Pratello,' 
etc.  :  Bologna,  Gamberni  e  Parmeggiani,  1873). 
The  man  of  practice  compares  them  with  the  five 
capanne  (hovels)  of  the  '  Mamolo  find '  to  the  south, 
and  with  the  2 1 6  neolithic,  and  the  1 6  bronze-age 
huts  discovered  by  Cav.  Concezio  Rosa  in  the 
Vibrata  river  valley,1  which  also  yielded  traces  of 
the  early  iron  period. 

1  This  Abruzzian  Valley  extends  from  the  Apennines  at  Montefiore, 
or  Civitella  del  Tronto,  to  the  Adriatic.  A  description  of  the  finds, 
especially  a  fish-hook  and  lilliputian  knives,  will  be  found  in  pp.  25-27 
of  the  Congrh.  See  also  Prof.  Capellini's  L'  eta  della  pietra  nella  Valle 
della  Vibrata.  Quarto,  three  plates:  Bologna,  1871. 


The  29  Bolognese  huts,  distant  about  a  metre 
from  the  road,  mostly  circular  and  some  oblong, 
occupied  an  area  sunk  one  metre  below  the  actual 
road  and  0*80  metre  (=2  feet  7.5  inches)  under  the 
ancient  horizon,  which  may  be  called  the  virgin 
soil.  A  few  were  isolated,  others  communicated  by 
passage  or  corridor  0*85  metre  (=2  feet  9*5  inches) 
wide,  and  a  little  raised  above  the  level  of  the 
flooring ;  and  the  latter  in  both  kinds  showed  either 
dark  grey  earth,  chiefly  animal  matter,  contrasting 
with  the  yellow  calcareous  soil,  based  on  water-rolled 
pebbles,  sometimes  in  double  layers,  which  suggest 
that  the  pavement  of  the  kistvaen  was  a  mere 
imitation  of  the  house.  Some  of  the  hovel-founda- 
tions had  holes  to  admit  the  perpendicular  supports 
of  the  conical  or  the  pent-shaped  roofs ;  and  the 
walls  were  probably  wattle  daubed  with  clay,  the 
adobe  of  which  we  shall  presently  see  a  specimen. 
Two  huts  had  steps  descending  from  north  to 
south,  and  No.  25  seemed  to  be  provided  to  the 
west  with  that  manner  of  porch  which  the  man  of 
Central  Africa  loves.  The  earthen  flooring  carried 
in  depth  from  0*45  metre  (=  i  foot  57  inches)  to 
o-8o  metre  (  =  2  feet  7.5  inches),  and  a  section 
showed  a  number  of  small  strata,  sometimes  sepa- 


rated  by  thin  layers  of  sand.  Each  bed  was  a 
conglomerate  of  remains.  Amongst  them,  the 
principal  were  the  CBS  rude,  mostly  '  scoriform,'  then 
the  laminated  and  the  cylindrical  ;  bronzes,  fibulce, 
plain  and  decorated ;  women's  ornaments  ;  and  a 
fine  spear-head.  The  pottery,  which  composed  most 
of  the  conglomerate,  was  red,  brown,  and  rarely 
black  ;  a  few  bore  graffiti,  and  some  of  the  ansce 
wore  the  semblance  of  equine  heads.  The  makers' 
marks  appeared  on  many  fictiles,  whose  forms  were 
either  absolutely  new,  or  resembled  those  of  the  Villa- 
nova,  Tortorelli,  and  Arnoaldi  tombs.  The  clay 
'dumb-bells'  were  not  wanting,  and  there  were  'pen- 
deloques'  (pendants)  of  the  same  material.  A  few 
stone  implements  were  found,  and  an  extraordinary 
quantity  of  split  bones  of  beasts,  especially  the  stag, 
then  the  pig,  sheep,  goat,  and  ox.  One  cervine 
horn  bore  the  tally  as  still  used  by  the  rustic 
world,  and  a  handle  was  engraved  with  a  rude 
sketch  of  some  quadruped  ;  there  were  also  rings 
and  thin  disks  of  deer-horn.  Cav.  Zannoni  ends 
his  interesting  letter  to  Prof.  Calori  with  expressing 
an  opinion  that  the  remains  are  those  of  the  peo- 
ples who  had  occupied,  and  who  left  their  tombs 
at,  Villanova,  Ca  de'  Bassi,  Ca  de'  Tortorelli,  S. 


Polo,  the  Scavi  Arnoaldi,  and  other  adjoining 
sites.  He  leaves  to  that  learned  archaeologist  the 
task  of  determining  the  race.  The  general  opinion 
seems  to  be  that  these  29  huts  were  remains  of 
the  oldest  or  Umbrian  settlement. 

'  The  '  Mamolo  find  '  precedes,  in  point  of  date, 
the  Pradello.  It  was  worked  in  January- April 
by  Cav.  Zannoni.  The  site  is  the  Villa  Bosi,  out- 
side the  Porta  S.  Mamolo,  or  southern  city  gate, 
extending  towards  the  Aposa  rivulet,  which  is 
generally  made  the  eastern  limit  of  Felsina,  and 
at  the  base  of  S.  Michele  in  Bosco,  where  the 
Arsenale  Militare  all'  Annunziata  now  stands. 
When  ditch-digging  near  the  right  bank  of  the 
Aposa,  and  close  to  the  modern  '  road  of  circum- 
vallation,'  the  labourers,  at  a  horizon  of  about 
three  metres,  came  upon  a  huge  doliform  and 
ansated  urn  containing  the  covered  ossuarium  of 
coral-red  clay — a  double  precaution  also  noticed  in 
the  Tortorelli  finds.  Prof.  L.  Calori  examined 
the  bones,  and  judged  them,  from  a  tooth-fang,  to 
be  those  of  a  woman  aged  30—40.  Cav.  -  Zannoni 
transmutes  the  sepulchres  into  five  hut  foundations. 
Here  the  yield  is  comprised  in  26  gold  earrings 
of  full  size,  6  armillcE,  including  one  of  iron,  a  bronze 


spillone  (pin  or  bodkin)  0*38  metre  (=  i  foot  2-96 
inches)  long  ;  fibiike  with  transverse  sections  of  bone 
and  amber  ;  bits  of  amber ;  glass  or  vitrified  clay, 
with  spiral  uniting  bands,  coloured,  as  usual,  blue 
or  yellow ;  and  a  quantity  of  fictile  fragments, 
vases,  patera,  urncz,  and  so  forth.  Count  Gozza- 
dini  ('  Intorno  ad  alcuni  Sepolcri  scavati  nell'  Ar- 
senale  Militare  di  Bologna.'  Bologna  :  1875),  notices 
5  tombs,  of  which  only  one  was  intact,  and  gives 
illustrations  of  two  remarkable  amber  necklaces,  (i) 
of  25  large  spheroids,  the  largest  in  the  centre, 
like  a  modern  '  riviere ;'  and  (2)  also  numbering  25. 
In  the  latter  the  forms  are  very  various  ;  some  are 
imitations  of  the  bulla  worn  by  patrician  boys, 
whilst  others  represent  shells  (Cyprcza,  etc.),  per- 
haps worn  as  amulets.  He  also  figures  a  dwarf 
head  upon  a  square  base  pierced  with  four  holes; 
an  image,  which  he  would  attribute  to  Phtah  (vulg. 
Harpocrates) x ;  a  band  with  four  heads  which  ap- 
pears to  be  the  Egyptian  coiffure  ;  a  fish-shaped 
ornament,  also  of  amber ;  a  pendant ;  a  wonderfully- 
worked  fibula  with  nine  chimaeras  courant,  retro- 
gardant,  and  baillant ;  and  two  of  the  hatchet- 

1  The  direct  operator,  under  the  Creative  Will,   in  framing  the 


shaped  bronze  plates  which  have  been  supposed  to 
be  gongs  and  bistouries. 

The  find  in  the  Strada  S.  Petronio,  near  the  Via 
Maggiore,  produced  only  one  remarkable  object, 
but  it  is,  perhaps,  the  most  important  of  the  whole. 

This  virile  head,  larger  than  life  and  cut  in  the 
'  molassa,'  or  common  miocene  sandstone  of  the 
country,  is  of  very  archaic  type.  The  sides  are  ab- 
normally flat,  the  long  hair  is  combed  off  the  brow, 
and  the  bearded  chin  is  of  Patagonian  dimensions. 
Its  similarity  with  toreutic  works  on  the  banks  of 
the  hill  reminds  us  of  Strabo's  assertion  (viii.  i,  §  28) 
touching  the  likeness  of  Egyptian  and  Tuscan  art. 
I  have  elsewhere  suggested  ('  City  of  the  Saints,' 
p.  555),  after  observing  at  the  'Dugway  Station'  the 


untutored  efforts  of  the  white  man  in  the  Far  West, 
that  '  rude  art  seems  instinctively  to  take  that  form 
which  it  wears  on  the  bank  of  Nilus,'  as  babes 
are  similar  all  the  world  over.  Dennis  (i.  Ixviii.) 
also  denies  that  the  rigid  and  rectilinear  Etruscan 
style  was  necessarily  imported  from  Egypt :  '  Na- 
ture, in  the  infancy  of  art,  taught  it  alike  to  the 
Egyptians,  Greeks,  and  Etruscans,  for  it  was  not  so 
much  art,  as  the  want  of  art.'  My  observation  was 
presently  confirmed  to  me  by  the  graven  images 
of  gods  in  Dahome  and  on  the  west  coast  of 
Africa.  Yet  the  discoveries  made  at  Bologna  have 
fully  justified  the  assertion  of  Strabo,  an  eye-witness; 
and  the  evidences  of  intercourse  between  the  races 
now  so  far  separated,  not  only  explain  a  mystery  but 
lead  to  a  highly  interesting  conclusion.  The  cosmo- 
gonic  system  of  the  Etruscans  has  hitherto  been 
accepted  with  reserve.  Professor  L.  Calori  ('  Delia 
stirpe/  &c.,  p.  44),  terms  it  '  Genesi  Mosaica  co- 
rotta,'  and,  with  C.  Heyne  and  others,  throws  doubt 
upon  the  accuracy  of  Suidas,  a  Greek  of  the  later 
ages  (sub  voce  Tuppsvia) ;  but  the  late  excavations  of 
Mr.  George  Smith  in  Assyria  distinctly  prove  that 
the  '  Creation  and  Fall  of  Man-myth '  extended 
from  the  banks  of  the  Nile  as  far  as  the  Tigris  and 


Euphrates ;  and  a  cosmogony  so  widely  diffused 
would  readily  be  introduced  into  Italy  by  an  Oriental 
race  of  immigrants,  were  they  Lydians  or  Phoeni- 
cians. Thus  we  may,  upon  this  point  at  least, 
rehabilitate  Suidas  versus  C.  Heyne,  and  explain 
the  12,000  years'  cycle  of  the  old  Etruscans.1 
Some  writers,  I  observe,  use  Mr.  George  Smith's 
discoveries  to  stultify  '  Darwinism,'  and  to  establish 
the  universality  of  a  tradition  consecrated  by  '  reve- 
lation : '  future  ages  will  admire  this  distortion  of 
fiction  into  fact. 

1  Suidas  is  the  only  writer  who  relates  that  an  anonymous  Tuscan 
related  to  him  how  the  Creator  decreed  a  cycle  of  12,000  years,  half  of 
which  were  assigned  to  the  work  of  creation,  and  the  rest  to  the  dura- 
tion of  the  world,  the  period  of  subversion,  and  perhaps  of  renovation, 
for  gods  and  men.  In  the  first  millenary  the  Demiurgus  made  heaven 
and  earth  ;  in  the  second  the  visible  firmament  ;  during  the  third  the 
sea  and  waters  ;  in  the  fourth  the  great  lights,  sun,  moon,  and  stars  ; 
in  the  fifth,  birds,  reptiles,  and  four-footed  animals  of  the  earth,  air, 
and  sea  ;  and,  finally,  during  the  sixth,  man.  Here  we  have  the  germ 
of  the  modern  theory  which  would  prolong  into  periods,  even  of  untold 
ages,  what  Genesis  expressly  asserts  to  be  days,  between  'Arab  (Gharb 
or  sunset)  and  Bakar,  dawn  or  morning.  The  duodecimality  of  the 
Etruscan  legend  probably  arises  from  a  connection  with  the  Zodiac  : 
for  the  latter,  see  the  Zodiaco  Etrusco  (with  plate)  by  the  late  Count 
Giovanni  da  Schio  :  Padova,  Angelo  Sicca,  1856. 




WE  have  now  seen,  in  the  rich  collections  of  Bologna 
city,  the  art  and  industry  of  the  Etruscan  man,  and 
we  shall  find  interest  in  an  excursion  to  the  sites 
which  yielded  them  :  a  long  day  may  profitably  be 
spent  in  visiting  the  actual  diggings.  We  will, 
therefore,  set  out  along  the  western  line  of  the  Via 
Emilia,  passing  the  Pradello,  and  issuing  from  the 
S.  Isaia  or  western  gate. 

The  grand  discovery  of  the  Certosa  (August 
23,  1869)  stimulated  public  curiosity,  and  Cav.  Zan- 
noni  happily  suggested  ('  fu  millanteria,  fu  intuizione, 
fu  intimo  presentimento  ? ' )  that  detached  groups  of 
sepulchres  would  be  found  on  alternate  sides  of  the  old 
highway  extending  to  the  city  walls.  The  Scavi 
Benacci  were  begun  in  1873,  and  early  in  1875  I  saw 
nine  tombs  and  places  of  cremation  which  had  been 
added  to  the  300  already  laid  open.  As  the  ground  is 


under  cultivation,  the  exhausted  trenches,  after  the 
contents  had  been  carefully  sketched  and  measured 
by  the  'Capo  Ingegnere  Municipale'  had  been  filled 
up,  per  non  dannificare  il  podere.  The  half-dozen 
labourers  received  at  the  dead  season  1*25  lire 
per  diem  ;  and  at  other  times  1*50  to  2  lire.  Four 
distinct  strata  can  be  detected  here  and  elsewhere, 
the  section  showing  well-marked  lines :  ist,  and 
highest,  (Roman  ?)  mostly  buried.  2ndly,  buried 
and  burnt  (Etruscan  ?).  3rd,  mostly  burnt  (Um- 
brian  ?  Italic  ?).  4th,  and  lowest,  (protohistoric  ?) 
all  burnt.  The  base  of  the  rogus  measured  each 
way  no  metre  (  =  3  ft.  7*31  in.);  the  north  of 
the  square  was  a  roll  of  pottery,  crushed  by  the 
weight  of  superincumbent  earth  ;  in  the  centre  lay  a 
pot-cover,  and  to  the  east  were  the  remnants  of  the 
ossuary.  A  few  yards  further  west  were  the  Scavi 
(of  Cav.  Francesco)  De-Lucca  ;  two  skeletons,  with 
skulls  to  the  setting  sun,  had  been  disposed  in  the 
bustum,  some  three  metres  under  the  modern  level ; 
and  at  the  lowest  horizon  was  the  ustrinum.  The 
find  which  I  witnessed  was  unusually  rich ;  pot- 
tery with  graffiti,  a  little  iron,  a  quantity  of  broken 
and  rotten  bronze,  and  a  knife-blade,  straight-edged 
on  one  side,  and  on  the  other  finely  toothed.  It  was 


probably  a  saw  for  cutting  bones  into  objects  of  use 
and  ornament. 

Hereabouts  are  the  (Fondo  Astorre)  'Arnoaldi 
Diggings,'  whence,  about  twenty  years  ago,  an  intact 
skeleton,  with  a  figured  vase,  placed  as  usual  on  the 
left,  was  accidentally  unearthed.  Some  forty-six 
places  of  sepulture  and  cremation  were  at  once  dis- 
covered in  1871-2,  and,  in  1873,  silver-gilt  fibula 
were  brought  to  light.  On  Dec.  4,  1873,  two 
bronze  cysts,  with  raised  rings,1  were  added  to  the 
two  bronze  situla,  and  other  vases  also  with  cordoni 
a  sbalzo ;  to  two  armillae,  various  fibulce,  the  usual 
quantity  of  ess  rude,  and  large  and  elegant  potteries, 
covered,  like  those  of  Villanova,  with  graffiti.  Four 
tombs  were  also  exposed  in  the  Predio  Tagliavini, 
near  S.  Polo,  and  a  trench,  measuring  nearly  fifty 
square  metres,  run  from  the  Arnoaldi  towards  the 
Tagliavini  diggings,  was  even  more  fortunate. 

We  now  resume  the  high  road  to  Florence,  a  fine 
macadam,  nescient  of  the  '  pike ' :  to  the  right  or 
north  lies  the  railway,  and  beyond  it,  as  far  as  the 
eye  can  see,  stretches  a  plain  flat  enough  to  cause 
short  sight  in  its  inhabitants.  The  frequent  villages 

1  They  have  also  lately  been  found  in  the  tumulus  of  Monceau- 
Laurent,  Commune  de  Magny-Lambert  (Burgundy),  and  at  Hallstadt 
Rev.  Arch.,  1873  :  plates  xii.  no.  i,  and  xiii.  no.  8). 


and  steepled  churches  which  rise  above  the  vine- 
bearing  elm  and  the  poplars  hedging  the  wheat- 
fields,  give  this  valley  a  thriving  and  a  pleasing 
aspect.  To  the  left  are  the  rib-ends  of  the  Pe- 
ninsula's dorsal  spine,  gently-swelling  hills,  either 
clothed  in  oak-scrub  or  patched  with  clayey  white, 
denoting  cultivation,  and  mostly  crowned  with  villas 
and  temples.  After  some  1,200  metres  from  the 
city  gate  we  enter  the  huge  Certosa,  whose  lofty 
Campanile  has  long  been  our  guide.  Dating  from  A.D. 
1335,  it  measures  some  two  kilometres  in  circumfe- 
rence. Fortunately  it  was  reformed  by  Napoleon  I., 
or  its  mines  of  antiquarian  wealth  would  still  lie 
buried.  Now  it  contains  only  two  seculars,  a  'guar- 
dian' for  the  church,  and  a  'custodian'  for  the 
churchyards.  The  latter  acts  as  'demonstrator' ;  he  is 
the  nephew  of  a  M.  Sibaud,  a  Frenchman,  who  made 
the  first  find,  but  who  did  not  know  how  to  utilise 
his  discoveries.  In  1835,  when  t\\&pronaos  of  the 
Pantheon,  which  is  still  building,  was  begun,  bronzes 
and  potteries  were  thrown  up  ;  and  M.  Marcellino, 
son  of  the  old  '  demonstrator/  presented  in  1 840  a 
bronze  statuette  to  Dr.  Venturoli,  Conservator  of  the 
Archiginnasio  (Old  University)  Museum  at  Bologna. 
When  curiosity  was  thoroughly  aroused  (1870)  the 


relics  were  found  by  the  present  curator,  Cav.  Luigi 
Frati,  stowed  away  in  two  boxes.  They  consisted  of 
bronze  fibula,  fragments  of  simpula  (ladles),  a  can- 
delabrum very  like  the  modern  Italian,  and  similar 
articles.'  The  pottery  was  comprised  in  a  painted 
tazza  and  pieces  of  a  great  celebe  for  mixing  wine 
and  water,  similarly  adorned  ;  an  amphora,  a  crater 
(mixing-jar),  and  minor  matters.  After  1835  many 
small  finds  rewarded  the  workmen. 

At  length,  on  August  23,  1869,  when  a  tomb  was 
being  dug  somewhat  deeper  than  usual,  in  the 
cloister  (No.  3)  called  '  Delle  Madonne  in  Certosa'; 
the  fossini,  reaching  three  metres,  came  upon  a 
bronze  cyst,  of  the  form  before  figured,  containing 
burnt  bones  and  a  large  silver  fibula  :  both  the 
band-box  and  its  alabaster  balsamary  were  broken. 
Cav.  Zannoni  at  once  repaired  to  the  spot,  and  deter- 
mined, with  remarkable  perspicacity,  that  the  Campo 
degli  Spedali,  the  burial-place  of  pauper  hospital- 
patients,  must  contain  an  Etruscan  cemetery  :  it  pre- 
sently proved  to  be  the  greatest  necropolis  found 
about  Felsina.  The  Sindaco  and  Giunta  allowed 
him  to  expend  50  lire,  and  thus  began,  under  his 
superintendence,  the  '  Scavi  della  Certosa,'  now  so 



famed  throughout  Europe,  which  show,  perhaps,  the 
most  splendid  age  of  the  life  of  Felsina. 

As  the  plan  proves,  we  have  five  great  groups. 
The  largest  (No.  i)  lies  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
Campo  degli  Spedali,  or  eastern  cloister ;  No.  2  is 

i,  2,  3,  4,  Groups  of  sepulchres  in  the  Campo  Santo.     5,  The  church. 

south  of  it ;  Nos.  3  and  5  are  all  around  and  even 
inside  the  church ;  and  No.  4  is  in  the  Campetto 
delle  Gallerie.  The  discoverer  presently  suggested 
that  this  necropolis,  or  rather  this  fivefold  cemetery, 


belonged  only  to  the  western  regio  of  Felsina,  and 
formed  items  of,  perhaps,  ten  groups  scattered  be- 
tween the  city  and  its  furthest  western  point.1  He 
also  suspected  that  the  broad  road,  dividing  the  four 
greater  groups  into  two,  was  a  suburban  branch- 
line  of,  or  was  perhaps,  the  primitive  highway, 
which  ran  a  little  south  of  its  successor,  the  Via 
^Emilia.  He  remarked  also  that  the  tombs  and 
pyres  of  the  wealthy  were  the  deepest ;  and,  sur- 
rounded by  open  spaces,  that  they  immediately 
fronted  the  road,  whilst  the  poor  lay  behind — we 
may  see  the  same  in  England.  How  much  the 
ground  has  changed  is  proved  by  the  diggings, 
which  show  two  distinct  floodings  and  deposits  of 
the  Reno  River. 

We  have  seen  the  Certosa  collections  in  the 
Museo  Civico,  and  we  have  remarked  how  admirably 
they  demonstrate  the  home  life,  the  warfare,  the  reli- 
gion, the  commerce,  the  luxury  of  northern  Etruria 
in  the  days  of  her  highest  development. 

The  sepulchres  illustrate  the  two  epochs  called 
further  north  '  bruna-old  '  (cremation),  and  '  hauga- 
old'  (inhumation,  or  rather  tumulation2 ),  the  propor- 

1  Sulle  Ciste  in  Bronzo  a  Cordont,  ec.,  ec.    Bologna  :  OcL  15,  1873. 

2  '  Haugr,'  a  cairn,  is  a  Scandinavian  word,  which  we  have  seen 
preserved  in  the  'Hougue'  of  Guernsey. 

H  2 


tions  being  respectively  about  1:2.  The  depth  of 
the  rogus  and  urna  varies  from  o-26  metre  (=  10*24 
inches)  to  5  '8  3  metres  (=  19  feet  i'53  inches)  ;  of 
the  tomb  between  1*21  metre  (=3  feet  ir64 
inches),  and  6'  13  metres  (=20  feet  1*34  inches)  : 
in  both  cases  computed  from  the  ancient  horizon, 
which  is  i  '3  7  metre  (=4  feet  6  inches)  below  the 

Cav.  Zannoni  (p.  23)  offers  the  following  plan: 


f     in 


C  Rude  metals 




J  Large-sized 

.         . 



(  Figured 




Cysts  — 



Bronze  Situla 







/  1  st  degree    /• 




J  2nd     „        .( 

mean  2  '88 




(3rd      „        ( 


"S       f  S 

1  1  st  degree    ( 


•r«    •<              2 

I-C       C            •{             C/1 

I    of 

2nd     „        J 

mean  2-83 


3  •""              O 

PQ         1  fc 


(3rd      „         ( 






I  'O6 




—       I'll 



>itula        1-16 

3  '98 




I  '2  1 


For  the  interment  of  the  whole  body  were  found 
(p.  10)  the  four  following  arrangements,  with  their 
proportions  out  of  a  total  of  250  : 

1.  83  rectangular  unlined  fosses  of  various  size, 
with  the   skeleton  and   the  various  articles  almost 
always  deposited  on  the  ground  to  the  left. 

2.  122  same  kind  of  fosse,  with  rounded  pebbles 


thrown  confusedly  over  the  skeleton.1     This  total, 
however,  includes  No.  4. 

3.  45  fosses  with  long  wooden  coffin  (Pliny,  xiii., 
27),  of  which  only  fragments  and  nails  remain.    The 
area  was  sometimes  covered  with  earth. 

4.  The  small  fosse,  with  walls  lined  by  un-mor- 
tared  pebbles.    Here  nothing  is  said  about  the  kist- 

vaen  ;   and  Cav.    Zannoni  seems  to  allude  to  one 
only  (p.  14). 

Cremated  remains  were  disposed  in  three  ways 
(p.  10).     Out  of  1 15 — 

I.  72  in  bronze  cysts  and  situlcz;  in  fictile  pots 
(plain,   36;  ornamented,  20  or   i'8o  to    100  of  the 
figured,  and  one  in  a  marble  vase. 

II.  41    were   in    fosses,  or   o'56    to   100  of  the 

III.  The  two  wells  had  each  one. 

There  is  little  at  present  to  view  in  the  Char- 
treuse, except  the  local  lion,  its  modern  cemetery. 

1  Here,  again,  we  have  the  precaution  of  not  allowing  the  corpse 
to  touch  the  earth.  The  Moslems,  on  the  contrary,  do  not  permit  the 
earth  to  touch  the  corpse  ;  the  idea  being  that  it  would  cause  pain  to 
the  still  sentient  clay.  I  wonder  much  that  when  all  the  press  in  Eng- 
land, during  the  winter  of  1874-5,  was  discussing  an  improved  form  of 
sepulture,  suggested  by  Mr.  J.  Seymour  Haden,  no  one  pointed  out 
how  the  system  had  extended  through  the  Moslem  East  since  the 
days  of  Mohammed,  and  probably  for  an  indefinite  period  before  him. 


The  entrance-hall  contains  the  monuments  which 
precede  the  seventeenth  century ;  and  one  of  them, 
a  sarcophagus  on  four  dwarf  pillars,  resembles 
Petrarch's  tomb  at  Arqua.  The  necropolis  is 
thoroughly  Italian,  and  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
of  its  kind.  Series  of  arcades,  developing  their  long 
galleries  around  the  cloisters,  embrace  the  little  old 
Certosa  church  which  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  big 
new  establishment.  The  bodies  of  the  wealthy  are 
deposited  under  the  pavement,  or  in  the  thickness 
of  the  walls ;  whilst  the  poor  lie  in  the  open  central 
grounds.  The  walls  of  the  Campo  Santo  are 
adorned  with  busts,  reliefs,  and  statues,  some  of 
which  pretend  to  considerable  art  and  value — its 
general  effect  is  somewhat  that  of  a  museum  or  a 
sculpture-gallery.  The  only  remnants  of  the  old 
tenants  are  a  heap  of  water-worn  oviform  stones  in 
the  western  cloister,  and  two  similar  mounds  in  the 
eastern,  still  showing  the  locality  of  the  find.  Even 
in  the  church,  skeletons  were  disinterred,  as  may  be 
seen  from  the  fractures  of  the  marble  pavement 
fronting  the  altar ;  and  a  wall-tablet  records  the  visit 
of  the  fifth  Archaeological  Congress. 

At  the  Certosa  the  useless  arcade — I  speak  as  a 
Briton — crosses  the  Florence  highway,  and  runs  up 


to  the  hill  church  of  S.  Luca,  a  favourite  place  of 
pilgrimage,  with  a  glorious  view.  Like  that  of 
Vicenza,  this  gallery  once  bore  frescoes  showing  the 
'  stemmata '  of  noble  families  who  built  the  several 
arches,  but  during  French  occupation  it  was  degraded 
by  whitewash.  Our  Gallic  neighbours  have  not  left 
pleasant  memories  in  this  part  of  the  world  ;  they 
seem  to  have  taken  example  from  their  forefathers, 
the  Boii,  with  the  trifling  difference  of  carrying  off 
instead  of  destroying.  A  mile  and  a  half  from  the 
Certosa  places  us  at  the  villa  of  Count  Denis  Talon, 
whose  grounds  command  a  prospect  ready  made  for 
its  painter.  Deep  below  the  clay  bank — here  sleep- 
ing in  stagnant  pools,  where  during  frosts  boys  slide  ; 
there  trotting  in  a  thready  streamlet,  whose  bed  is  a 
broad,  white  Arabian  wady,  in  summer  mostly  bone- 
dry — lies  the  Reno  River,  no  taciturnus  amnis\  at 
times  the  turbulent  mountain-torrent,  the  general 
drain  of  many  a  burrone  or  gully,  springs  from  its 
couch,  in  a  mighty  brown  flood,  and  violently  invades 
the  fields  on  either  side.1  A  solid  dam  of  masonry 
crosses  the  Fiumara  bed,  and  from  the  left  bank  sets 

1  For  its  classical  claims  consult  the  volume  Dell'  Antico  Ponte 
Romano  sul  Reno  lungo  I'  Emilia,  e  della  precisa  postura  dell'  Isola  del 
Congresso  Triumvirale.  Memoria  del  Dott.  Luigi  Frati  (Anno  vi.  Atti 
e  Memorie).  Bologna,  1868. 


off  the  leat  which  supplies  the  city.  Fertile  ledges, 
the  site  of  the  ancient  river-valley,  limited  north  as 
well  as  south  by  mound-like  and  conical  hill-ranges, 
denoting  the  old  bank,  mark  where  it  debouches 
upon  the  plain.  And  afar,  stretching  from  west  to 
south-west,  are  the  steel-blue  peaks,  bluffs,  and 
blocks  which,  snow-capped  in  winter,  part  us  from 
Tuscan  Pistoja. 

Madame  de  Talon  takes  an  intelligent  interest  in 
the  excavations  upon  her  property  beyond  the  Reno. 
We  cross  the  stream  by  a  solid  bridge  of  stone- 
work, not  too  solid  for  its  task,  as  the  five  arches, 
of  which  three  are  full-sized,  are  sometimes  choked 
by  the  floods.  Here  is  the  modern  '  Casalecchio,'  a 
common  term  in  this  part  of  Italy,  meaning  a  group 
of  houses — Casalecchio  di  Rimini  has  lately  distin- 
guished itself  by  discovering  a  foundry  of  the  later 
bronze  age.  The  sixty  tenements  are  covered  by  a 
tete  de  pont,  and  this  forms  a  part  of  the  earthwork 
line  of  vallation  which  defends  Bologna  on  all  but  the 
southern  or  hill  side.  At  the  Osteria  del  Calza, 
famed  for  revelry  on  Sundays  and  Saint  Mondays, 
we  turn  to  the  right,  and  ascend  to  the  plane  of  the 
Diluvial  epoch,  when  the  Glacial  disappeared  in  ca- 
taracts and  cataclysms  that  swept  everything  before 


them.  The  bank  shows  a  section  of  the  ground  ; 
humus  based  on  a  stratum  of  '  ghiaia,'  and  these 
water-rolled  pebbles  overlie  miocenic  marl,  resting 
upon  impermeable  clay — we  shall  need  this  observa- 
tion at  Marzabotto.  Vines  and  wheat  flourish,  but 
the  trees  are  stunted.  The  find  was  made  when  dig- 
ging a  trench  to  replant  the  elms.  Ancient  Casa- 
lecchio  stood  at  the  very  edge  of  the  raised  river- 
bank,  limiting  the  stream  to  the  north,  with  a  dainty 
view,  as  if  it  had  been  chosen  by  Carthusians.  The 
little  cemetery  lay  behind  it.  In  Roman  cities  we 
usually  look  for  graveyards  to  the  south  ;  in  the 
Greek  colonies  of  Italy  and  Sicily  to  the  north  (De 
Jorio,  p.  52) ;  the  only  rule  of  Etruria  is  to  seek  the 
main  lines  of  road.  Three  skeletons  facing  east- 
wards had  been  exhumed,  and  one  was  transported 
to  Villa  Talon,  much  to  the  horror  of  certain  inmates. 
It  was  declared  to  be  Roman  by  the  fact  of  its  lying 
upon  broad  tegultz,  or  pan-tiles,  under  a  sloping 
cover  formed  by  two  rows  of  the  same  pottery.  This 
is  probably  the  local  variety  for  the  earthenware 
coffins  (Jictilia  solia)  of  Pliny  (xxxv.  46).  The 
remains  in  situ  were  puddings  of  broken  and 
crushed  wine-jars;  the  ciottoloni  (water-rolled  pebbles) 
used  as  flooring  for  house  and  tomb;  and  a  bit  of 


intonaco  (plaster  or  daub),  an  adobe-like  mass,  burnt 
red,  but  still  showing  marks  of  calcined  stalks  and 
the  tracery  of  leaves.  The  other  articles  were  a  few 
coins  comparatively  modern  ;  the  sheath  of  a  fibula, 
with  faz.  patina  ;  a  number  of  solid  amphora,  and 
a  fragment  of  pottery  with  bits  of  carbonised  clay 
set,  by  way  of  ornament,  in  the  lighter-coloured  mate- 
rial. The  owner  will  dig  in  a  straight  line  between 
the  skeletons,  and  if  the  labourers  come  upon  the 
ancient  highway  a  rich  trouvaille  may  be  expected. 
A  little  further  down  stream  lies  the  property  of 
Marchese  Boccadelli,  who  is  also  preparing  to  make 
fouilles,  especially  upon  the  northern  range  of 
hillocks,  the  bank  of  a  Reno  much  larger  than  it  is 




BEYOND  Casalecchio  the  Florence  road  follows  the 
left  of  the  valley,  passing  through  well-cultivated 
lands,  where  even  wheel-ploughs  are  seen,  and 
amongst  villas  which  must  be  charming  in  the  sum- 
mer heats.  A  total  of  i  hour  15  minutes' sharp  driving 
places  us  at  the  Borgo  del  Sasso,  a  substantial  vil- 
lage, with  the  size  of  a  hamlet  and  the  houses  of  a 
city.  Near  it  is  the  Ca  di  Bassi,  in  the  Predio  Cor- 
nelli,  where  six  tombs  were  unearthed.  One  of  them 
contained  the  skeleton,  with  bronze  vases,  a  clay 
tazza,  dice,  and  pebbles  (counters  ? ) ;  the  other  five 
showed  remnants  of  the  pyre,  bronze  engraved 
fibula,  with  burnt-red  pots,  on  some  of  which  were 
graffiti,  whilst  the  sigli,  or  makers'  marks,  were  very 
clear.  This  is  known  from  its  owner  as  the  '  Cor- 
nelli  find ' ;  and  in  the  precipitous  face  of  the  rock- 
wall  on  the  right  are  several  caves  :  the  entrances 


are  of  that  converging  form  by  which  the  Egyptians 
effected  an  economy  of  lintel ;  and,  if  they  have  not 
been  dug,  the  sooner  it  is  done  the  better. 

Beyond  the  Borgo  we  debouch  upon  the  con- 
fluence of  the  Setta  from  the  south-east  with  the 
Reno  from  the  south-west.  The  picturesque  view  of 
sulphur-blue  water,  in  broad,  glaring  white  beds 
overhung  by  high  banks  ;  of  gashed  ravine  and  of 
shaggy  foot-hill  backed  by  the  true  Apennines,  is 
justly  admired,  even  in  the  land  of  '  rock,  ruin,  and 
ravine.'  Nor  less  singular  is  the  road  at  this  pass,  a 
blending  of  the  highway  and  the  railway.  A  deep 
cutting  in  the  sandstone  rock  leaves  a  slice  standing 
as  a  'gardefou'  upon  the  tall  river-cliff;  and,  under 
the  off  or  right  side,  'pedionomitic,'  ^^-troglodytic, 
abodes,  cut,  like  those  of  Ariano  (Capitanata),  in  the 
'  molassa,'  line  the  bottom  of  the  scarp.  This  bend 
much  resembles  the  place  where  the  French  line 
from  Beyrut  to  Damascus  overlooks  the  picturesque 
Wady  Hammanah.  Thence  we  run  up  and  down  the 
left  side  of  the  Reno,  where  the  road  is  built  on  arches 
against  inundations,  and,  after  I  hour  30  minutes 
—which  will  stretch  to  two  or  three  if  you  ride  in  a 
one-horse  voiture  de  place — we  reach  the  little  station 
and  village  of  Marzabotto.  It  is  usually  placed  at 


27  kilometres  from  Bologna  :  Dennis  (i.  35,  'Cities 
and  Cemeteries,'  etc.)  says  fourteen  English  miles  ; 
but  I  hardly  think  that  we  travelled  at  the  rate  of 
three  leagues  an  hour.  Here  we  find  a  decent 
'osteria;'  and  we  enjoy  all  the  civility  and  cordiality, 
the  good  cooking,  and  the  comfortable  ingleside,  com- 
bined with  the  moderate  charges  which  characterise 
such  places  in  the  byways  of  Italy. 

The  bran-new  Villa,  with  its  single  tall  tower  on 
the  hill  overlooking  Marzabotto,  belongs  to  the  Aria 
family,  now  Counts  of  the  Italian  kingdom.  The 
site  has  been  known  to  Etruscologists  for  some 
years.  As  early  as  1831  a  number  of  bronze 
statuettes  and  other  important  objects  attracted  the 
attention  of  Micali  ('  Monument.  Inediti,'  p.  115,  pi. 
xviii.).  In  1850,  again,  other  antiquities  came  to  light, 
but  they  were  readily  dispersed.  About  1862  systema- 
tic research  was  begun  by  the  father  of  the  present 
owner,  the  late  Cav.  Pompeo  Aria,  who  died  in  May 
1874  at  the  fine  age  of  eighty-five.  It  is  a  thousand 
pities  that  he  had  not  more  sentiment  of  archaeology 
than  to  build  up  the  old  stones  in  his  new  house  ; 
and  that  he  did  not  employ  more  competent  investi- 
gators than  the  rude  men  who  superintended  the 
works.  On  the  other  hand  he  was  fortunate  in 

i  io  THE  ABODES  OF  MAN. 

persuading  Count  Gozzadini  to  overlook  part  of  the 
excavations  ;  and  he  wisely  printed  and  published  at 
his  own  expense  two  illustrated  brochures  by  his 
learned  friend.  These  are  entitled  '  Di  una  antica 
Necropoli  in  Marzabotto,'  &c.  (20  figs.,  1865),  and 
'Di  ulteriori  scoperte,'  &c.  (17  figs.,  1870).  The  two 
large  quartos  (Fava  e  Garagnani),  followed  by  '  Ren- 
seignements  sur  une  ancienne  Necropole  a  Marza- 
botto,' 1871 — a  brochure  for  the  use  of  the  Anthropo- 
logical Congress — have  been  noticed  by  a  host  of 
foreign  writers.  The  Villa  contains  on  the  first  floor 
a  fine  collection,  of  which  the  earlier  discoveries  are 
noticed  by  Count  Gozzadini  (p.  17,  '  Di  alcuni  Se- 
polcri,'  &c.,  and  pp.  9-17  of  the  '  Renseignements ') ; 
and  the  town-house  has,  we  are  told,  another.  Unfor- 
tunately, when  Count  Aria  goes  to  Rome  he  takes  his 
keys  with  him,  and,  perhaps,  the  less  a  stranger  sees 
of  the  '  fattore,  fatto  re,'  Giacomo  Benni,  a  '  lewd 
fellow  of  the  baser  sort,'  the  better  for  the  temper  of 
both  '  parties.' 

The  site  of  this  Etruscan  city,  whose  name,  unless 
embalmed  in  the  modern  Misanello  and  Misano,  has 
utterly  perished,  requires  careful  study.  Count  Goz- 
zadini's  plan  is  old,  and  it  wants  a  profile  and  section 
of  the  ground  ;  but  there  is  nothing  better  to  offer, 


nor  will  there  be  until  Cav.  Zannoni  has  published 
his  valuable  volume. 

Here  the  swift  and  brawling  Reno,  flowing  from 
the  south-west,  forms  a  loop,  with  the  long  diameter 

A,  Misanello.  B,  The  Campuccelliera  tombs,  c,  Morello  tombs.  D,  High  street  and  road. 
E,  E,  Prolongation  of  the  ancient  city  now  washed  away  by  the  Reno.  M,  Misano. 
x,  Cross  street  to  the  east,  y,  Cross  street  to  the  west. 

facing  to  the  south-east,  and  then  bends  to  the 
north  and  north-east.  At  the  most  important  point 
it  hugs  the  left  bank,  a  perpendicular  of  friable  ma- 
terials, at  least  80  feet  high  ;  and  thus  it  flows  round 


three  sides  of  the  wedge-shaped  projection,  which 
measures  700  yards  in  length  by  350  of  average 
breadth.  This  area,  of  245,000  square  yards(  =  5O'62 
acres),  has  two  distinct  levels  ;  the  upper,  which  sup  - 
ports  Misanello,  is  the  oldest  part  of  the  river-site, 
backed  by  the  hills  forming  its  bank.  The  lower 
(Misano)  is  a  flat  ledge,  the  raised  side  of  the 
present  river. 

We  begin  by  visiting  Misanello.  Passing  through 
the  cour  d'honneur  and  the  southern  gate  of  the 
Villa  Aria,  we  walk  a  few  yards  along  a  broad 
gravelled  walk,  dividing  the  garden,  to  a  newly- 
built  pillar  ;  and  we  regret  to  see  that  these  '  modern 
enrichments'  almost  equal  in  number  the  old  re- 
mains. It  records  the  names  of  Aria  and  Gozzadini, 
with  the  date  MDCCCLX.  ;  and  it  bears  on  one  side 
(V)MRVS — probably  a  family  name,  which  some  have 
hastily  connected  with  the  Umbrians — and  on  the 
other  AKIVS.  Both  are  in  Etruscan  characters  ;  they 
were  found  upon  fragments  of  tiles,  and  a  third 
inscription  was  yielded  by  a  fibula.  Beyond  it 
begin  the  ruins,  and  here  we  at  once  enter  upon 
debated  ground.  Count  Gozzadini,  followed  by 
Prof.  Count  J.  Conestabile  and  others,  sees  a 
necropolis ;  the  Abbe  G.  Chierici  and  Cav.  Zannoni 


detect  the  abodes  of  the  living,  not  of  the  dead. 
The  foundations  of  the  dry  walls  are  water-rolled 
pebbles,  varying  from  1*40  metre  (=4  feet  7  inches) 
to  two  metres  in  thickness.  Upon  these  is  laid  the 
opus  guadratum,  of  dimensions  considerably  smaller, 
and  seldom  exceeding  two  courses.  The  coarse 
calcareo-marly  stone — according  to  the  guide,  an 
intelligent  gardener — is  still  quarried  in  the  Virgata 
Valley,  some  five  or  six  miles  up  stream,  and  we 
shall  find  that  it  is  nearly  the  only  material  used. 
The  proprietor  is  entitled  to  our  gratitude  for  the 
precaution  of  defending  the  old  walls  from  Apennine 
weather  by  loose  tiles,  which  can  readily  be  removed 
on  gala  days.  The  numerous  water-pipes,  tubes 
hollowed  in  cubes  of  stone,  an  industry  still  ex- 
tending from  Trieste  to  Recoaro,  suggest,  as  in 
Palmyra,  the  utilisation  of  rain.  And  now  we  come 
upon  what  appears  to  be  distinctly  the  foundation,  a 
house  with  a  compluvium  and  a  central  cistern.  I 
offer  the  following  rude  sketch,  made  upon  the  spot. 
The  central  well  is  fed  by  pipes,  and  the  cavcedium, 
the  patio  (Arabic  'bathah')  of  modern  Iberia,  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  corridor,  upon  which  the  rooms  and 
bed-chambers  opened.  We  can  restore  the  frontage 
of  the  Etruscan  house  with  the  aid  of  a  basso-rilievo 



in  the  Museum  of  Florence.  It  shows  two  figures, 
the  one  sitting,  the  other  standing,  backed  by  a  door- 
way and  two  flanking  windows,  the  latter  of  double 




J  gfo.  Iff*.  I 


a,  Main  entrance  to  Atrium,     b,  5  steps  to  Cavaedium  platform,    c,  The  Cavaedium,  15  feet 
square,     d,  The  cistern  (impluvium).     e-l,  The  rooms. 

lights,  and  provided,  like  the  Egyptian,  with  a 
square-headed  and  overhanging  lintel,  or  rather  cap- 
ping of  stone  :  this  feature  may  be  compared  with 
the  rod-moulded  door  in  Dennis  (i. 
233) ;  his  sketch,  however,  has  panels 
recessed  one  within  the  other,  perhaps 
suggesting  the  idea  of  a  perspective. 
Of  our  Etruscan  house  at  Misanello  Count  Gozza- 
dini  writes  ('  Renseignements,'  p.  8) :  '  Un  de  ces 
puits  s'eleve  sur  1'ancienne  surface  de  la  necropole  par 
un  rectangle  de  quatre  metres  36'  de  large  (=14  feet 
3-65  inches),  et  de  i  metre  20'  (=  3  feet  n  inches) 
de  haut,  bati  en  grosses  pierres  et  en  moellons  a  sec. 


II  y  a  des  degres '  (five  can  still  be  counted)  '  pour  y 
monter,  comme  dans  les  tombeaux  de  Castel  d'Asso 
dans  1'Etrurie  moyenne,  peut-etre  pour  aller  celebrer 
sur  le  defunt  des  silicernes  annuels.'  With  this 
conclusion  we  simply  join  issue. 

The  wells — which,  with  the  two  at  the  Certosa,1 
number  twenty-seven — have  again  given  rise  to  a 
long  debate.  We  will  begin  by  dividing  them  into 

Round-bottomed  Well. 

two  kinds,  the  round-bottomed,  and  the  pointed  like 
the  amphora.  The  average  depth  varies  from 
2'io  metres  (  =  6  feet  10*68  inches)  to  10*25  metres 

1  In  the  Certosa  wells  the  bodies,  as  has  been  said,  were  burnt. 

I  2 



(=33  feet  7*54  inches).  The  most  remarkable  is 
seen  in  section  upon  the  lower  or  Misano  level,  cut 
by  the  modern  Pistoja  road,  which  took  the  place 
of  the  highway  on  an  upper  gradient.  It  is  well 
preserved;  still  fed  by  drainage,  and  said  to  be  16 
metres  (=52  feet  5*92  inches)  deep  :  no  corpses  were 
found  in  it.  The  orifice  varies  from  30  centimetres 

Sharp-bottomed  Well. 

(  =11*8 1  inches)  to  77,  and  even  80  (  =  30*31  to 
31*50  inches),  abolishing  the  theory  which  makes 
the  mouth  too  narrow  to  admit  a  human  being,  and 
suggesting,  consequently,  that  the  walls  had  been 
built  up  around  the  remains.  In  all  cases  there 


is  a  revetment  of  mortarless  pebbles,  allowing 
percolation,  whilst  the  bottom  is  sunk,  to  prevent 
loss,  into  the  impermeable  clay  which  we  remarked 
at  Casalecchio. 

These  so-called  puits  funtraires,  '  which  would 
be  a  unique  feature  of  Etruria,' 1  were  found  to 
contain  bronze  vases  and  rings,  ceramic  tablets — 
one  inscribed  with  a  single  name — pottery,  and 
painted  urns,  with  several  strata  of  bones,  chiefly 
of  sheep  and  goats,  pigs  and  dogs.  According  to 
Prof.  Count  J.  Conestabile  ('Congres,'  p.  257),  but 
upon  what  authority  I  know  not,  '  from  one  to  three 
human  bodies  were  found  in  them,  sometimes  in  the 
raised  and  doubled  position,  as  shown  by  certain 
tombs  of  the  Stone  Age.  They  were  surrounded 
by  pebbles,  which  also  underlay  the  head,  probably 
for  protection ;  whilst  in  the  lower  part  and  under 
the  skeleton  there  was  generally  a  large  urn.' 
Similar  constructions  have  been  found  in  Savoy  and 
in  Transalpine  Gaul,  especially  at  Troussepoil,  Beau- 
gency,  Villeneuve-le-Roi,  Trigueres,  and  Gourge. 
According  to  M.  Quicherat  this  custom  began,  not 
during  Gallic  autonomy,  but  only  after  the  Roman 

1  This  was  asserted  by  Prof.  Conestabile  at  the  Congress,  but  it  is 
by  no  means  the  case,  as  will  presently  appear. 


conquest.  In  Middle  Etruria,  Dennis  (i.  121)  at 
first  believed  them  to  be  '  silos,'  the  '  sili '  of  Sicily, 
and  the  a-sipoi  or  a-ipoi  of  the  Cappadocian  and 
Thracian  Greeks,  but  he  presently  '  had  not  the 
smallest  doubt  of  their  sepulchral  character.' 

I  find  it  easier  to  believe  either  that  a  similar 
form  was  superstitiously  used  for  the  sepulchre  and 
for  secular  purposes,  or  that  these  were  simply 
cisterns  and  '  silos '  proper,  into  which  skeletons 
and  other  articles  have  been  thrown,  perhaps  during 
the  sack  of  the  settlement.  If  Misanello  be  a 
village  they  cannot  be  funerary ;  and,  at  any  rate,  the 
way  in  which  they  are  scattered  over  the  lower 
level  (Misano)  instead  of  being  aligned,  like  all  other 
Etruscan  sepulchres,  along  the  main  roads,  is  a 
strong  argument  in  disfavour  of  the  sepulchral 
theory  which  is  now  generally  waxing  obsolete. 

We  presently  reach  a  feature  even  more  interest- 
ing. Count  Gozzadini  tells  us  (loc.  cit.  p.  9) :  '  Une 
tombe,  bien  plus  remarquable  et  bien  plus  grandiose, 
mesure  10  metres  de  longueur  sur  chaque  cote,  sans 
compter  un  avant-corps  avec  degres '  (five  also  here 
visible),  '  lesquels  auront  servi  au  m£me  usage  que 
ceux  du  puits  funeraire,  c'est  a  dire  a  monter  pour 
celebrer  les  silicernes  annuels.  II  ne  reste  de  cette 


tombe  que  le  soubassement  de  tuf,  opere  quadrato, 
de  i  metre  19'  (=  46*85  inches)  de  haut,  de  style 
Toscane  severe,  bien  sculpte,  et  correspondant  a 
celui  de  semblables  monuments  sepulcraux  de 
1'Etrurie  moyenne,  et  notamment  de  Vulci,  de 
Caere,  de  Alsio,  et  de  Tarquinii,  qui  cependant  en 
different  par  ce  quits  sont  circulaires!  * 

But  the  latter  is  an  essential  difference.  At  first 
sight  I  recognised  a  temple,  an  cedicula  in  antis,  and 
I  was  pleased  to  find  that  the  same  idea  had  oc- 
curred to  Cav.  Zannoni  and  to  the  Abbe  G.  Chierici. 
We  cannot  forget  that  a  modern  author,  whose 
Etruscan  vagaries  will  be  alluded  to  in  a  future 
page,  absolutely  asserts2  the  non-existence  of  Etrus- 
can temples,  despite  the  '  Fanum  Voltumnae '  of 

1  The  italics  are  mine. 
2  What  can  we  make  of  parallel  passages  like  these  ? — 

'  There  are  reasons  to  be-  '  There  is  not  a  vestige  left  of 
lieve  that  there  were  temples  in  a  single  Etruscan  temple,  or  of  a 
some  of  the  Etruscan  cities '  single  Etruscan  palace.  Their 
(p.  49).  constructive  powers  and  the  re- 

sources of  their  decorative  arts 
were  lavished  on  their  tombs ' 
(p.  41). 

Nor  can  I  see  by  what  right  Mr.  Isaac  Taylor  declares  (p.  326)  that 
'  the  Fanum  Voltumnae  was  not  a  temple.'  Its  identification  with  the 
cemetery  of  Castel  d'  Asso  or  Castellaccio  has  been  questioned  by 
Dennis  (i.  239),  who  shows  some  reasons  for  preferring  Viterbo  (i.  196) 
and  its  church  of  Sta.  Maria  in  Volturna. 


Livy  (iv.  23,  &c.),  where  the  deputies  of  the 
Federation  met,  and  the  express  statement  of 
Servius  (ad  ALneid,  i.  422)  that  every  city  of 
Etruria,  'genetrix  et  mater  superstitionis,'  had  its 
threefold  temple — outside,  not  inside,  the  walls — 
lodging  the  Triad,  Jove,  Juno,  and  Minerva,  whence 
the  triple  shrine  of  the  Roman  Capitol  (Dennis, 
i.  520). 

The  most  careful  excavations  in  this  platform 
failed  to  produce  any  trace  of  human  remains. 
The  following  is  Cav.  Zannoni's  rough  restoration 
of  this  highly-interesting  building.  The  direction 
of  the  long  walls  is  from  north  to  south  ;  and 
the  steps  show  the  entrance.  The  podium  sup- 
ported four  monoliths,  truncated  columns,  of  which 
some  were  found  with  socket-holes,  probably  to 
hold  wooden  pillars.  Vitruvius  (iv.  7)  represents 
the  epistylia  to  have  been  wooden ;  hence  the 
broader  intercolumnations  than  in  the  Greek  orders, 
and  hence,  probably,  the  reason  why  none  of  the 
temples  are  standing.  We  have  remarked  that  the 
system  is  not  yet  wholly  obsolete  at  modern  Bo- 
logna :  a  house  in  the  Via  Maggiore,  close  to  the 
two  great  Leaning  Towers,  still  preserves  the  old 
Etruscanism ;  but  this  survival  is  about  to  be  '  im- 


proved  off.'  The  posts  supported  architrave  and 
cornice  ;  there  was,  probably,  a  tympanum  with  cen- 
tral light,  possibly  with  sculptured  figures  ;  and  a 

Profile  of  the  base  still  existing. 

Height  of  base  3  feet  io'8s  inches. 

sloping  roof  is  denoted  by  the  find  of  many  large 
tiles  and  antefixae.  These  civilised  ornaments, 
hiding  the  ends  of  the  joint-tiles,  number  1 10, 


suggesting  that  they  were  also  equally  applied  to 
sacred  and  profane  buildings,  sepulchres,  or  houses. 
Some  are  plain ;  others  are  encaustic  with  human 
heads  in  demi-relief;  and  a  few  are  decorated 
with  graceful  palmlets  raised  and  coloured. 

Prolonging  our  walk  for  a  few  yards  with  an 
easterly  bend  where  the  ancient  river-bank  slopes  to 
a  lower  level,  we  find  another  modern  building  in- 
scribed '  Sorgente  Etrusco,'  from  a  relic  which  has 
been  unwisely  removed.  Beyond  it  a  bran-new 
obelisk — single,  as  usual,  for  greater  disgrace — bears 
the  name  of  Prince  Humbert,  President  of  the  fifth 
Anthropological  Congress,  and  the  date  of  his  visit 
(October  5,  1871).  The  base  shows  at  the  four 
angles  as  many  archaic  rams'  heads,  with  the  profiled 
eye  drawn,  after  the  Egyptian  fashion,  as  if  fronting 
the  spectator.1  They  are  copied  from  a  colonnette 

1  My  venerable  friend  Prof.  Owen  (Journal  of  the  Anthro.  Insti- 
tute,  p.  244,  vol.  iv.,  no.  I.,  April — July,  1874)  explains  the  'elongate, 
deeply-fringed,  almond-shaped  eye-aperture'  of  the  Egyptian  Middle 
Empire  by  the  effects  of  solar  glare  and  sandy  khamsin  contracting  the 
winker-muscle  (orbicularis  palpebraruni}.  The  strong  action  of  this 
muscle,  whose  rixed  point  of  attachment  is  to  the  inner  side  of  the  orbit 
rim,  a  little  below  its  equator,  would  draw  the  line  of  the  eyelids  ob- 
liquely downwards  and  inwards.  Hence,  in  artistic  work,  the  slight 
exaggeration  of  the  rim  of  the  outer  and  the  dip  of  the  inner  canthus. 
The  law  once  passed  in  so  hieratic  a  country  would  become  unalterable 
for  all  time,  and  it  would  naturally  extend  from  the  human  eye  to  all 


in  the  Aria  collection ;  and  the  local  theory  is  '  qu'ils 
semblent  se  rapporter  au  culte  de  Amon-ra.' 

Beyond  the  obelisk  lies  the  original  Etruscan 
aqueduct  of  Misanello,  said  to  have  been  found 
30  metres  (?)  below  the  surface.  There  is  a  central 
reservoir  of  hollowed  stone,  and  three  cut  conduits 
sufficed,  as  the  fourth  would  have  led  up-hill  :  more- 
over, in  the  latter  direction  there  is  a  perennial  pond, 
which  may  date  from  Etruscan  days.  All  are  large 
parallelopipedons  of  squared  tufa.  Upon  the  slopes 
head-stone  shaped  boards,  marked  and  numbered, 
show  where  the  sarcophagi  were  exhumed.  The 
graveyard  is  thus  sharply  demarked  from  the  town, 
which  lay  upon  a  higher  level.  The  general  as- 
pect at  once  suggests  that  Misanello  is  the  arx  or 
acropolis,  probably  an  older  foundation  than  Misano. 
It  has  its  temple,  its  aqueduct,  and  its  necropolis — in 
fact,  all  the  requisites  of  its  social  life. 

During  the  visit  of  the  Congress  three  tombs, 
opened  for  the  first  time,  yielded  the  skeletons  of  a 
woman,  round  whose  arm-bone  ran  a  bracelet,  and 
that  of  a  man  armed  with  a  sword.  Concerning  the 
general  collection  we  will  speak  afterwards  ;  here, 
however,  was  made  the  discovery  of  the  admirable 
group  and  the  amphora-bearing  negro  preserved  in 



the  Aria  Museum.  The  warrior-god,  armed  with 
a  casque,  whose  front  suggests  the  horns  of  Moses,1 
is  offered  a  ritual  patera,  possibly  for  libations,  by 

the  Diva  potens  Cypri,  whose  raiment,  after  the  old 
Italic  fashion,  decently  and  decorously  descends  to 
her  feet.2  This  group  is  15  centimetres  (=  some  6 

1  Dennis  (ii.  105)  notices  a  warrior-figure,  more  than  a  foot  high, 
whose  '  helmet  has  a  straight  cockade  on  each  side,  almost  like  asses' 

2  Similarly  the  discoveries  in  Cyprus  by  General  di  Cesnola  and 
Mr.  Lang  are  remarkable  for  the  modesty  and  even  '  respectability '  of 


inches)  high,  and  its  evident  imitation  and  adapta- 
tion of  Greek  art  renders  it  most  valuable.  The 
negro  is  also  no  mean  work.  Prof.  Count  J.  Cones- 
tabile  declares  that  in  it  '  1'imi- 
tation  du  vrai  est  absolument 
obtenue  d'une  maniere  magis- 

Near  an  ignoble  pond  rises 
a  tall  bronze  group  of  Mars  and 
Venus,  a  modern  enlargement  of 
that  found  in  the  sarcophagus. 
There  are  also  sundry  modern 
antiquities  scattered  about  the 
ground  ;  and  a  third  pool,  sup- 
plied by  a  spring  from  above, 
here  concludes  the  visitanda.  Descending  to  the 
plane  of  the  present  bank  we  reach  the  second 
lakelet,  an  artificial  water  a  few  yards  in  diameter, 
also  fed  from  the  upper  heights.  A  central  pile 
of  old  stones  forms  a  '  cavern/  which  can  be  ap- 
proached by  a  boat  or  by  a  bridge  with  wooden 
rails,  painted  to  resemble  bamboo — the  whole  in 
most  approved  cockney  style.  Here  are  the  sarco- 

the  statuary  and  the  reliefs,  where  the  reverse  might  have  been  ex- 


phagi  removed  from  Misanello.  They  are  upon  the 
surface,  not  sunk  in  it,  as  was  the  invariable  custom 
— this  is,  perhaps,  a  necessary  evil,  in  order  to  display 
them  without  the  necessity  of  digging  out  a  large 
area  of  ground.  But  the  tombs  have  been  disposed 
pell-mell,  without  any  regard  for  orientation,  and, 
worse  still,  the  pieces  have  been  put  together  in  the 
wildest  way.  Thus  the  columns  belonging  to  other 
buildings  have  been  planted  where  the  pent-shaped  lid 
of  the  sarcophagus  positively  forbade  such  ornamenta- 
tion. As  might  have  been  expected,  many  a  casual 
visitor  has  carried  away  the  impression  that  we  have 
here  the  origin  of  our  truncated  columns  placed  upon 
gravestones,  and  thus  the  Congres  (p.  225)  actually 
sketches  '1'ancienne  necropole  de  Marzabotto'  on 
the  borders  of  the  lake.  The 
effect  is  something  of  this  kind, 
and  it  forcibly  suggests  Pere  La 
Chaise,  with  its  gravelled  walks 
and  trim  hedges. 

Of  the   spheroids   and   lenti- 
cular  masses    I    shall    speak    in 
another  place — they  at  least  belong  to  the  tombs. 
We  now  leave  the  handsome  eastern   gates  of 
the  park,  and  proceed  south-eastward  to  the  farm- 


buildings  of  Misano  (fundus  Missanus  or  Mtsanus). 
Thence  the  path,  bending  southwards,  spans  vine- 
yards and  wheat-fields,  which  were  ankle-deep  in 
mud  after  the  rainy  morning  of  the  Anthropological 
visit.  Here  are  three  of  the  old  pebble-built  rain- 

cisterns,  two  to  the  east  and  one  to  the  west.  We 
are,  doubtless,  treading  over  the  burial-place  of  the 
old  city,  and  the  whole  '  podere '  should  be  bought 
by  the  State  and  thoroughly  explored.  Cav. 
Zannoni  would  restore  the  form  as  above.  It  occu- 
pied the  isthmus  formed  by  the  Reno — a  site  which 



the  Etruscans  seem  always  to  have  chosen  when 
possible.  The  shape  was  probably  polyangular, 
not  square ;  but  the  interior,  we  shall  see,  pre- 
serves the  ritualistic  form,  oriented  towards  the 
cardinal  points.  The  general  style  of  single-arched 
gateway  may  be  restored  after  this  fashion,  as  three 


Bossed  and  draughted  stones. 

layers  of  bossed  stones  have  been  found  in  situ. 
The  cuneiform  system  was  apparently  well  known, 
and  we  may  believe  that  the  early  Romans  borrowed 
it,  like  the  paved  road,  from  the  Etruscans.  The 


flat  cuneiform  arch  (Dennis,  i.  201)  is  essentially 
Eastern.  I  found  it  in  the  ruined  cities  of  the 
Hauran,  and  traced  it  through  Diocletian's  Palace 
(Spalato),  to  the  Castle  of  Kirkwall.  The  official 
city  had,  doubtless,  large  suburbs  extending  all 
around  it. 

A  glance  up-stream  discloses  a  noble  Apennine 
view,  but  we  forget  it  in  sorrow  for  the  ravages  of 
the  Reno,  which  is  still  in  the  habit  of  shifting  its 
thalweg.  By  prolonging  the  chief  lines  of  inter- 
secting street  and  road,  we  see  that  a  large  and 
important  section  of  the  southern  and  western 
enceinte,  possibly  half  the  city,  has  been  eaten  away 
and  engulfed  in  the  wild  torrent.  The  latter,  of 
course,  has  sunk  many  yards  below  the  level  of  the 
Etruscan  days. 

The  first  remains  to  the  west  are  pebble  founda- 
tions of  square  and  oriented  cells,  which  have 
provoked  abundant  discussion.  Count  Gozzadini 
('  Congres,'  p.  278),  gallantly  owning  that  he  will  be 
glad  to  find  himself  in  error,  denies  that  they  can 
be  huts  (casupoli],  for  a  variety  of  reasons,  which,  in 
my  humble  opinion,  do  not  appear  convincing.  He 
objects  to  the  small  size  of  some  cells,  not  exceeding 
175  metre  (= 68-90  inches)  in  length,  by  1-50  metre 



(=  59*05  inches);  but  how  many  a  Hindu  hut, 
Buddhist  Vihara  (monastery),  and  the  lodgings  in 
Sepoys'  '  Lines  '  are  not  larger.  And  again,  why 
should  not  the  smaller  divisions  have  been  com- 
partments ?  The  depth  of  the  foundation,  a  few 
centimetres  below  the  pebble  pavement,  would  not 
bear  stable  house-walls ;  but  again,  why  should 
these  not  have  been  partitions  (intercapedines)  ? 
Three  arguments  are  drawn  from  the  presence  of 
'  funerary  wells,'  but  this  use  of  the  silo  is  not 
proven.  Pieces  of  pottery,  like  those  taken  from 
sepulchres,  were  found  both  in  the  cells  and  in  the 
wells  ;  but  may  they  not  also  have  been  imbrices  for 
roofs  and  other  purposes  ?  Finally,  there  were  no 
passages  from  cell  to  cell.  I  believe  that  they  have 
since  been  discovered  :  moreover,  the  walls  are 
mostly  rased  to  their  bases,  and  would  not  show  the 
threshold  which,  some  two  feet  high,  is  still  preserved 
in  the  abominable  town  called  Bonny  (West  Africa). 
Professor  Conestabile  hesitates  about  delivering 
a  definitive  opinion.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Abbe 
G.  Chierici  offers  the  serious  objection  that  in  exca- 
vations opened  to  the  extent  of  100  square  metres, 
the  broken  bones  of  animals  appeared  in  abund- 
ance, whilst  those  of  human  beings  were  utterly  or, 


some  say,  comparatively,  absent.  The  remaining  ob- 
jects :  a  long  iron  sword 1  and  scabbard,  votive  arms 
and  legs,  idols,  an  as  rude,  bronze  and  iron  frag- 
ments, tiles  and  pottery,  broken  urns,  bits  of  coloured 
glass,  worked  stones  and  bones,  might  have  be- 
longed to  a  settlement  of  the  living  as  well  as  to  a 
city  of  the  dead.  The  tubes  for  conducting  water, 
and  the  little  clay  windows  admitting  light  into  the 
roof,  denote  huts,  not  tombs  :  again,  the  situation  as 
regards  the  '  High  Street,'  from  north  to  south,  would 
suggest  that  this  space  was  included  within  the  walls. 
The  Abbe  notices  the  remarkable  likeness  of  the 
pebble  foundations  with  the  pre-historic,  bronze-aged, 
terramare,  or  pile-villages  of  Reggio,  Modena,  and 
other  parts  of  Italy.2  Remarking  that  under  the 

1  This  blade,  which  is  much  longer  than  the  usual  bronze  weapon, 
and  lacks  cross-piece,  together  with  the  iron  lance-head,  large    and 
willow-leaf  shaped,  were  deposited  in  the  Aria  Museum,  and  excited 
some    discussion.     M.    Desor  refers   to   the  lances   which  Diodorus 
Siculus  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  Gauls,  and  like  M.  de  Mortillet,  com- 
pares both  weapons  with  those  which  had  been  found  at  La  Tene,  on 
the  battle-field  of  Tiefenau,  and  other  places.     Prof.  Conestabile  re- 
plies that   similar  swords   have   been   exhumed   in    Central   Etruria. 
Presently  a  sufficient  collection  of  facts  will  enable  us  to  determine 
how  far  Etruscan  art,  original  or  imitated,  may  have  extended  north 
of  the  Alps. 

2  They  are  described  in  the  Congrh  (pp.  171-180).     Older  writers 
held  them  to  be  '  Ustrina,'  as  if  the  dead  were  burned  in  water.     Ac- 
cording to  the  Abbe  G.  Chierici,  the  six  terramare  of  Reggio,  espe- 
cially Sanpolo,  the  typical  specimen  which  yielded  articles  of  iron, 

K  2 


pavement  of  Etruscan  Misano  a  second  stratum 
appears  at  the  depth  of  070  metre  (=2  feet  4*59 
inches),  and  supports  passages  and  houses  with  walls 
of  clay,  still  bearing  the  tubular  impressions  of  rushes, 
and  wanting  the  bricks,  the  tiles,  and  the  pottery  so 
common  in  the  more  civilised  successor,  he  would 
detect  a  still  older  settlement  ;  in  fact,  the  first 
colony  of  settled  Etruscans  who  established  them- 
selves on  the  champ  rase  before  walled  villages  were 

From  the  pebble-cells,  a  few  paces  to  the  east 
lead  us  across  a  hollow ;  it  was  intended  as  a  cutting 
for  the  railway,  which  now  runs  in  the  Galleria  di 
Misano,  a  tunnel  below.  Here  we  find  a  truly 
magnificent  remnant  of  the  '  High  Street,'  trending 
from  north  to  south,  and  probably  meeting  its  eastern 
and  western  intersector  in  the  space  beneath  which 
the  Reno  at  present  rolls.  Seeing  this  fragment,  we 
can  easily  understand  that  the  Romans  borrowed 
their  paved  roads,  like  their  monuments,  from  the 
Etruscans.  These  were  the  Plateae,  Cardinalis  and 

had  square  and  oriented  constructions  of  pebbles  and  also  '  funerary 
wells ' ;  they  overlie  the  more  ancient,  bronze-aged  pile-villages.  He 
adds  an  illustration  of  Castellarano  (Congrts,  p.  285).  In  Italy  the 
terramara  or  mariera  is  considered  the  third  stage  of  the  proto- 
historic  habitation,  preceded  by  the  cavern,  and  the/a/tf/?/te,  or  pile- 
village  proper. 


Decumana,  which  divided  the  city  into  quarters  and 
regions,  and  which  led  to  the  Portse  Decumanae, 
where  the  loth  Cohorts  camped.  A  length  of  300 
(380  ?)  metres  has  been  opened,  but  of  this  only 
some  1 20  feet  remain  for  inspection.  The  breadth 
of  the  thoroughfare  is  14  metres,  and  the  largest 
slabs,  which  are  mixed  with  pebbles,  exceed  a 
square  yard.  The  pavement  shows  no  ruts,  as  if 
the  biga  were  confined  to  the  outside  of  the  enceinte 
— still  the  rule  in  many  Dalmatian  cities.  The 
broad  central  line  is  flanked  by  crepidines,  path- 
ways on  either  side,  the  conveniences  so  common  in 
Roman  '  High  Streets  ;'  and  suggesting,  as  at  Salona 
and  Damascus,  triple  gateways  to  the  north  and 
south ;  perhaps  to  the  east  and  west.  The  deep 
flank-drains  have  orifices  to  gather  the  rain-water, 
and  the  middle  is  scientifically  bombe".  The  two 
bands  of  large,  square  detached  blocks  which,  dis- 
posed at  regular  intervals,  run  across  the  road,  and 
determine  the  trottoirs,  are  usually  explained  as 
the  cippi  used  for  mounting  horses  when  stirrups 
were  unknown  ;  and  others  remark  that  the  spaces 
allowed  the  passage  of  carriage  wheels — where  no 
ruts  are  to  be  found.  I  would  look  upon  them 
as  the  succedanea  for  bridges  in  muddy  weather, 


resembling  on  a  grand  scale  those  of  ancient  Pompeii, 
and  the  modern  cities  of  the  nearer  East.  The 
same  kind  of  '  unbuilded,  unarched  bridges  '  are  still 
remarked  by  visitors  to  Albanian  Skodra. 

From  this  noble  Platea  Cardinalis,  or  Grande 
Rue,  a  single  line  of  secondary  thoroughfare  sets  off 
at  a  right  angle  to  the  west ;  only  a  few  feet  now 
remain  unburied.  The  fragment  is  ten  feet  broad, 
and  in  the  middle  appears  a  flag-covered  conduit,1 
like  those  now  existing  in  all  the  older  Veneto- 
Istrian  towns,  Muggia  and  Capodistria,  for  instance. 
The  modern  fashion  came  from  the  '  Sea-Cybele,' 
and  it  extended  south  as  far  as  Albania.  The 
Eastern  cross-street,  of  the  same  dimensions  as 
the  High  Street  (14  metres),  which  led  south  to  the 
Morello  tombs,  and  which,  prolonged,  would  in- 
tersect the  main  line  in  the  Reno  bed,  has  been 
re-interred.  I  am  not  aware  that  any  of  the  vici,  or 
smaller  thoroughfares,  have  yet  been  uncovered. 

And  here  I  would  utterly  reject  the  theory  of 
Count  Gozzadini  ('  Renseignements,'  p.  7)  :  '  Ce  ne 
pourraient  etre  non  plus  les  rues  d'une  ville  tres- 
antique,  les  deux  grandes  espaces,  ou  avenues,  de  14 
metres  de  largeur,  qui  semblent  couper  la  necropole 

1  I  cannot  be  quite  sure  of  this  feature. 


dans  la  direction  des  points  cardinaux ;  car  on  ne 
peut  pas  supposer  qu'une  ville,  aussi  ancienne  que 
celle-ci,  eut  des  rues  aussi  spacieuses  et  aussi  bien 
alignees.  De  telles  avenues  seraient  au  contraire  fort 
propres  a  faire  des  grandes  divisions  dans  la  necro- 
pole,  et  a  y  donner  acces ;  comme  cela  a  lieu  dans 
les  champs  cimeteriaux  actuels.'  The  state  of  the 
arts  at  Misano  disproves  this  conclusion. 

From  the  High  Street,  a  hundred  yards  to  the 
north  with  easting,  leads  to  the  cemetery  of  Misano, 
which  lying,  of  course,  outside,  defined  the  limits 
of  the  enceinte.  Excavations  are  continued,  but 
economy  sometimes  reduces  the  number  of  hands  to 
two.  The  sarcophagi  are  placed  upon  the  surface, 
so  as  to  be  in  sight,  and  we  can  only  hope  that 
they  will  remain  in  situ.  This  Misano  cemetery,  as 
it  is  now  called,  shows  a  great  variety  of  shapes  and 
sizes ;  single  and  double,  large-square  and  small- 
square,  long-broad  and  long-narrow.  The  lids  fit 
into  rims  sunk  in  the  border  of  the  caisson  ;  they 
are  pent-shaped,  with  a  shallow  elevation  ;  none  of 
them  have  columns,  while  spheres  and  disks  of 
sandstone,  some  of  very  large  size,  are  everywhere 

At  the  end  of  the  visit  we  descended  the  path 


down  the  stiff  earth-cliff  to  the  north-east,  and  fol- 
lowed the  leat  taken  from  the  Reno  on  the  south- 
east of  the  buried  citv.  This  '  Canale  del  Molino  ' 


formerly  turned  the  wheel  of  a  dwarf  powder-manu- 
factory ;  the  latter  has  been  closed  after  sundry 
explosions,  some  of  which  lodged  human  arms  and 
legs  upon  the  poplar-trees  of  the  adjacent  avenue. 
Close  below  the  belvedere  of  the  Aria  farm-houses, 
other  monuments  (Campuccelliera)  have  been  found, 
proving  that  the  line  of  sepulchres  was  prolonged  to 
the  north-east ;  and  although  the  now  sunken  Reno 
is  separated  from  the  tall  bank  by  an  alluvial  flat, 
over  which  the  railroad  runs,  we  can  see  by  the 
water-lines,  by  the  erosion,  and  by  the  dilapidation 
of  the  tombs,  that  the  stream  once  swung  near,  and 
that  even  here  there  has  been  a  considerable  amount 
of  destruction. 




WE  have  now  inspected  the  many  objects  rescued 
from  the  kistvaen  and  the  sarcophagus  ;  we  have 
visited  the  homes  and  the  long  homes  of  the  Cir- 
cumpadan  Etrurians ;  and  we  may  venture  upon  a 
little  cautious  generalisation. 

The    external    shape    of    the    sarcophagus    at 

Misanello  and  Misano  is  of  two  great  varieties. 
The  first  is  the  quadrangular  coffin  of  tufa  slabs, 
numbering  4  to  6.  The  dimensions  are,  length 
o'Qo  metre  (=  2  feet  11*43  inches)  to  2*27  metres 


(  =  7  feet,  5-37  inches)  ;  breadth,  0*57  metre 
(=  i  foot  IO'44  inches)  to  i'6o  metre  (=  5  feet  2^99 
inches) ;  height,  0*42  metre  (=  i  foot  4^54  inches) 
to  1*92  metre  (=6  feet  3*59  inches)  ;  the  thickness  of 
the  walls  is  from  0*08  metre  to  0^32  metre  (=  3*15 
inches  to  i  foot  o-6o  inch)  ;  the  cover  is  gene- 
rally of  one,  sometimes  of  two  pieces ;  and  though 
flat  roofs  are  mentioned,  I  saw  only  the  pent- 

The   second   kind    is   surmounted    by  a   heavy 
weight,    which,    under   the   pressure    of   earth,    has 

often  broken  through  the  lid,  and  has  been  found 
inside  the  tomb.  The  upper  gradient  was  crowned 
by  a  cut  stone,  supposed,  like  the  horse-shoe,  to 
represent  the  Homeric  c-^aa ;  the  material  was 
mostly  macigno  or  sandstone  grit,  and  water-rolled 


pebbles ;  the  shape  was  either  spheroid  or  lenticular, 
and,  in  some  cases,  the  diameter  reached  four  feet. 
Prof.  Conestabile  ('  Congres,'  p.  255)  mentions,  as  a 
third  variety  of  sarcophagus,  rectangular  bases  and 
truncated  columns,  which  suggested  to  him  the 
phallic  steles  so  common  in  the  necropoles  of  Central 
Etruria,  but  he  apparently  did  not  see  them.  He 
also  includes  amongst  sepulchres  the  pebble-lined 
wells,  the  '  caisses  formees  avec  de  grandes  tuiles  a 
couvercle,  fa9onne  en  faite '  (coffins  formed  by  the 
large  tegulce] ;  the  pebble-tumulus  and  kistvaen,  and 
the  pebble  foundations  before  alluded  to. 

Incineration  has  prevailed  at  Marzabotto.  Only 
three  or  four  out  of  1 70  contained  the  whole  skele- 
ton, which  was  supported  by  a  quantity  of  marl  and 
pebbles,  and  the  presence  of  these  articles  did  not 
appear  accidental.  The  other  contents  were  the  <zs 
(r2t.dc,  etc.],  of  which  each  individual  had  at  least  one  ; 
pottery,  statuettes,  weapons,  bronzes,  fibula ',  mirrors, 
and  a  variety  of  gold  ornaments.  Almost  all  the 
sarcophagi  had  been  violated,  but  one,  which  had 
remained  intact,  yielded  no  less  than  57  objects  of 
the  precious  metal.  Besides  these,  there  were  pietre 
dure  of  fine  cutting  and  archaic  Etruscan  gems,  e.  g. 
the  carnelian  scarabseus,  with  a  walking  Minerva, 

140  THE  ABODES   OF  MAN. 

cuirassed  and  winged ;  the  more  advanced,  as  the 
engraved  quartz,  showing  the  heifer  lo  stung  by  the 
gadfly,  and  the  pasto  '  tumble  bug '  representing  a 
tailed  man  contending  against  a  fabulous  monster 
that  stands  before  him.  As  usual,  amber  and  bone- 
dice  were  abundant,  and  so  were  the  ossuaries,  and 
the  vases  of  plain  and  painted  pottery.  The  bones 
picked  up  in  the  necropoles  and  the  settlements  are 
determined  by  Professors  Cornalia  and  Rutimeyer 
to  be  those  of  the  Ursiis  arctos,  the  Cants 
familiaris  (and  palustris  ?),  the  Felis  Cattus,  the 
Mus  Rattus  (?),  the  Equus  Caballus  (and  A  sinus  ?), 
the  Sus  pahistris  (and  Scrofa  ferus  ?),  the  Cervus 
(Elaphus  and  Capreohis),  the  Ovis  Aries,  the  Capra 
hircus  (with  two  other  varieties),  and  the  Bos  bra- 
chyceros.  The  birds  are  chiefly  the  Bufo  vulgaris, 
and  the  Gallus  domesticus — this  Indian  bird  sug"- 


gesting  by  no  means  a  remote  date.  The  shells, 
probably  used  for  necklaces,  are  principally  the 
Pectunculus  glycimeris  (fossil)  and  the  Cypr&a 
tigris.  So  my  friend,  Professor,  now  Rector  G. 
Capellini,  an  ardent  archaeologist,  of  whom  more 
presently,  when  exploring  the  cannibal  Grotta  del 
Colombi,  in  the  Island  of  Palmaria,  found  and  figured 
(plate  2,  Fava  e  Garagnani,  Bologna,  1873)  a  valve 


of  the  P.  glycimeris,  pierced  near  the  apex,  and  a 
Patella  ccerulea,  cut  to  form  a  ring.1 

The  essential  difference  between  the  systems  of 
sepulture  in  Northern  and  in  Central  Etruria,  is 
that,  whilst  the  latter  built  in  the  interior  of  hills  and 
upon  plateaux  adjoining  the  towns,  the  former  laid  out 
their  graveyards  in  our  modern  style.  Fortunately 
for  students,  we  have  thus  three  great  monumental 
series,  which  cannot  be  considered  to  be  of  the  same 
date  ;  whilst  certain  crucial  points  of  resemblance, 
for  instance,  the  form,  the  system,  and  the  ornamenta- 
tion of  the  bronze  fibula,  and,  briefly,  the  great  lines 
of  art,  suggest  the  peoples  to  be  of  one  race. 

It  is  now  given  to  us  to  trace  how  '  fortis  Etruria 
crevit.'  Villanova  and  the  Certosa  belong  to  Fel- 
sina,  whilst  Marzabotto  stands  grandly  alone.  The 
greater  antiquity  of  the  first-named  is  proved  by  the 
absence  of  statuettes ;  except  the  feminine  idol  with 
birds,  the  archaic  horses,  and  the  symbolical  or 
conventional  mannikins,  raised  upon  the  surface  of 

1  Similar  shells  have  been  discovered  in  the  Perigord  Caves.  Rector 
Capellini  also  brought  from  the  Pigeon  Grot  large  quantities  of  Ostrcea 
edulis,  Natica  millepunctaia,  Murex  trunculus,  Trochus  titrbinatus, 
Colnmella  rustica,  Patella  Lusitanica,  Helix  (nemoralis,  and  singu- 
lata),  an  undetermined  Triton,  and  a  Dentalium  not  belonging  to  the 
existing  Mediterranean  species.  It  was  probably  brought  to  Spezia, 
like  the  Silex,  from  some  part  of  Tuscany. 


an  ossuary.  The  ornaments  are  chiefly  meanders, 
disks,  concentric  circles,  crosses,  or  circles  containing 
crosses ;  and  animals,  ducks,  geese,  and  serpents. 
There  is  no  goldsmiths'  work  ;  the  only  iron  ar- 
ticles are  some  few  ornaments,  several  lance-points, 


two  hatchets  (?),  knife-blades  and  shovels  (?) ;  and 
we  must  remember  that  the  first  kings  of  Rome 
were  in  the  early  iron  epoch.  Lead-alloy  is  also 
wanting  in  the  ess  rude,  which  is  of  a  ruder  type  than 
that  of  its  neighbours.  At  Villanova  there  are  no 
bas-reliefs,  no  inscriptions,  no  styli  for  writing  ;  and 
the  cyst-shaped  ossuary  of  bronze  is  supported  by 
plain  unpainted  pottery,  generally  black,  and  pro- 
vided with  handles  of  various  forms.  Thus  the 


Congress  was  enabled  to  date  Villanova  from  the 
ninth  and  even  the  tenth  century  B.C.,  synchronous 
with  the  early  Etruscan  epoch,  or  at  the  end  of  the 
bronze  and  the  beginning  of  the  iron  age.  The 
study  of  this  period  has  served  as  guide  to  a  host  of 
sepulchral  discoveries  in  Switzerland  and  Franche- 

The  general  aspect  of  the  Certosa  shows  the 
greatest  splendour  of  Etruscan  art,  a  progress  and 
development  which  would  place  it  several  centuries 
later ;  Cav.  Zannoni  assigns  it  to  about  the  fourth 
century  of  Rome.  The  bronze  contains  more  lead, 
and  an  ess  grave,  apparently  an  as  of  uncial  weight, 
would  fix  the  date  after  u.c.  537  (B.C.  216),  the  year 
in  which  a  decree  of  the  Republic  reduced  the 
weight  of  an  as  to  an  ounce. 

Marzabotto  is  the  latest  of  the  three.  Here  we 
have  three  inscriptions,  two  on  pottery  and  one  on 
a  silver  fibula,  besides  three  bronze  writing-^/y/z. 
The  alloys  consist  of  a  greater  proportion  of  lead, 
about  36  :  100.  The  ces  rude\?>  abundant;  there  is 
a  large  rectangular  piece,  perhaps  the  ess  signatum  * 
(first  century  of  Rome),  bearing  the  trident  and 

1  It  weighs,  according  to  Count  Gozzadini  (p.  13, '  Renseignements  ' 
etc.),  2,157  grammes  (  =  4  Ibs.  12  oz.  avoir.,  45-14  grs.),  and  conse- 
quently exceeds  by  367  grammes  (=  1202.  avoir.,  454-52  grs.)  the 


the  caduceus  ;  while  the  as  grave  is  wanting.  Iron 
is  much  more  common  at  Marzabotto  than  at 
Villanova,  the  articles  being  chiefly  keys,  bracelets, 
lance-heads,  blades  and  scabbards  of  long  knives, 
daggers,  or  swords.  A  Greek  inscription  upon 
a  fragment  of  pottery,  (xa^)PTAION  EnOIE^(sv), 
proves  an  advanced  commercial  intercourse.  The 
fibula  are  often  novel  and  beautiful :  for  instance, 
one  represents  a  pair  of  tweezers  ;  another,  in 
silver,  has  a  double  spiral,  and  the  lower  end 
reverted,  reminding  M.  G.  de  Mortillet  of  Gallic 
objects  in  the  Museum  of  St.  Germain.  The 
metal  might  be  considered  rare,  yet  a  hundred 
such  '  bijous '  have  been  found  at  Marzabotto. 
Gold,  as  well  as  silver,  becomes  more  abundant, 
denoting  ideas  of  luxury  and  a  social  condition 
which  could  appreciate  the  value  of  the  material 
and  the  beauty  of  the  work  ;  often,  indeed,  both 
were  combined.  Of  this  fact  the  necklace  and 
the  pendants,  supposed  to  form  part  of  a  feminine 
collar  (torques],  figured  by  Count  Gozzadini  ('  Di 
ulteriori  scoperte  a  Marzabotto,'  plate  xvi.,  No.  n, 
a,  b,  c  ;  xvii.,  Nos.  2  and  3),  are  sufficient  proofs. 

heaviest  specimen  cited  in  Mommsen's  Monetary  History.  The  ess 
rude  weighed  from  10  to  24  grammes  (  =  16933  to  406-40  grs.  avoir.) 
and  contained  about  36  per  cent,  of  lead. 


Finally,  the  bas-reliefs  and  statuary,  numbering 
about  a  hundred,  enable  us  to  compare  the  most 
archaic  style  (Venus),  shapelessness,  disproportionate 
limbs,  unnatural  length,  rigidity,  and  drapery 
adhering  to  the  body,  with  that  of  the  most  ad- 
vanced civilisation  (Venus  and  Mars).  Thus  Prof. 
Count  Conestabile  is  of  opinion  that  the  necropolis 
of  Marzabotto  was  used  for  a  considerable  period 
after  the  Boian  and  Lingonian  invasion ;  whilst  the 
Abb6  G.  Chierici  is  of  opinion  that  both  Misanello 
and  Misano  owe  their  destruction  to  those  bar- 


1  Nulli  nota  poetas 
Ilia  fuit  tellus,  jacuit  sine  carmine  sacro.' 




WE  have  now  seen  the  arts  and  industry,  the  tem- 
porary abodes  and  the  eternal  homes  of  the  Circum 
padan  Etrurians  :  it  remains  only  to  interview  what 
is  left  of  the  man  himself.  Here,  again,  a  short 
preparatory  course  is  advisable,  a  glance  at  the 
early  geological  history  of  Italy,  especially  at  the 
central  regions  in  their  long  career  of  adaptation 
for  humanity.  The  palseontological  field  has  been 
admirably  worked  by  the  writers  of  the  Peninsula : 
amongst  them  we  may  single  out  Senator  Ponzi 
('  Atti  della  R.  Acad.  dei  Lincei,  1871,'  and  many 
other  publications),  who  offered  to  the  Congress  of 
Bologna  (pp.  49-72)  a  synoptic  table  and  a  rtsumt 
of  the  five  great  periods  belonging  to  the  annals  of 
our  kind.  He  shall  tell  his  own  tale  of  cataclysms 
and  convulsions,  although  modern  belief  prefers 
attributing  to  the  normal  activity  of  the  present 
day,  prolonged  through  unnumbered  ages,  what  was 



formerly  held  to  be  the  work  of  paroxysmal  epochs.1 
But  the  last  of  the  catastrophists  has  not  yet  gone 
his  ways :  the  mantle  of  Murchison  seems  to  have 
fallen  upon  the  shoulders  of  Prestwich. 

I.  The  Lower  Pliocene  of  the  Tertiary  Age,  when 
the  nummulitic  strata  are  being  laid,  is  a  period  of 
calm  and  of  sub-tropical  temperature,  represented  by 
the  calcareous  formations  of  Macco.  The  presence 
of  Pliocene  man  in  Italy  is  still  disputed.  Professor 
Nicolucci,  of  whom  more  presently,  would  place 
him  in  the  centre  of  the  Peninsula  ('  Congres,'  p.  234). 
The  Jury  of  the  Congress  (p.  520)  opines  that  man 
existed  during  the  uppermost  Tertiary2  or  the 

1  The  following  table  shows  at  a  glance  the  four  periods  (A,  B,  C, 
and  D)  of  the  greatest  excentricity  during  the  last  million  years  ;  and 
the  several  glacial  epochs  which  resulted  from  it  : — 

Years  be- 
fore A.D. 

of  Orbit. 

Difference  of 
distance  in 
millions  of 

Winter  days 
in  Excess. 

Mean  of 
hottest  month 
in  the   latitude 
of  London. 

Mean  of 
coldest  month 
in  the  latitude 
of  London. 




2  '75 

7  '3 

83°  F. 

21°  F. 






2  '25 


36  '4 
27  '8 




o°'6      . 




















2  Mr.  Frank  Calvert,   of  the  Dardanelles,   declares  that  he  has 
found  traces  of  Miocene  (Tertiary)  man.     From  a  cliff-face  composed 

HIS  DATE.  151 

oldest  Quaternary  or  Post- Tertiary  Age.1  In  the 
Newer  Pliocene  sub-division  the  sub-Apennine  sea 
beats  upon  the  mountains,  depositing  yellow  silex 
in  the  shape  of  extensive  sand-beds  which,  however, 
Nicolucci  would  attribute  to  a  later  age.  The 
cold,  presently  extending  from  the  Poles  towards 
the  Equator,  causes  a  general  and  secular,  as  op- 
posed to  a  seasonal,  emigration  of  the  fauna  both 
from  higher  to  lower  latitudes,  and  from  the 
uplands  to  the  netherlands. 

II.  Follows  the  Diluvial  Epoch  at  the  end  of 
the  Tertiary  period  and  at  the  opening  of  the 
Post-Tertiary  Age :  it  is  synchronous  in  the  Apen- 
nines with  the  Alpine  diluvium.  The  temperature, 
falling  still,  produces  terrible  meteoric  convulsions. 
The  condensation  of  vapours  precipitates  masses 
of  water  in  successive  deluges  and  whirlpools,  ac- 
companied by  incessant  electrical  discharges.  The 

of  strata  dating  from  that  period,  at  a  geological  depth  of  800  feet,  he 
'  extracted  a  fragment  of  the  joint  of  a  bone  of  either  a  dinotherium  or 
a  mastodon,  on  the  convex  sides  of  which  is  deeply  incised  the  un- 
mistakeable  figure  of  a  horned  quadruped.'  He  also  exhumed  a 
flint-flake  and  bones  of  animals  longitudinally  fractured,  probably  to 
extract  the  marrow.  The  discovery  has  set  at  rest  all  the  doubts  of 
Sir  John  Lubbock  (Pre-historic  Times]  and  M.  L.  Figuier  (Primitive 

1  The  term  Pleistocene  was  proposed,  on  palaeontological  grounds, 
by  Lyell,  to  demark  beds  later  than  the  latest  Tertiary,  and  older  than 
the  deposits  of  the  recent  period. 


resulting  torrents  sweep  towards  the  ocean,  which 
still  breaks  against  the  Apennines,  enormous  burdens 
of  ddbris  breached  from  the  ancient  rocks;  and 
thus  thick  beds  of  conglomerates,  breccias,  and 
amygdaloids,  showing  the  turmoil  of  the  waters, 
are  deposited  upon  the  yellow  Tertiary  sands.  The 
aspect  of  the  Peninsula  remains  that  of  a  com- 
plicated archipelago,  and  the  emerged  lands  are 
covered,  as  their  fossilised  remnants  prove,  with 
dense  forests  of  oak,  pine,  and  other  tall  trees. 
The  fauna  continues  to  be  the  same,  but  the 
tempests  and  deluges  compel  it  to  seek  shelter  in 
the  caves. 

Primitive  man,  a  nomad  like  his  congeners, 
doubtless  occupied  at  this  epoch  the  higher  Apen- 
nines, together  with  the  elephant,  rhinoceros,  hip- 
popotamus, cave-bear  and  hyaena,  Bos  primigenius, 
hipparion,  and  Cervus  elaphiis.  The  necessities  of 
offence  and  defence  taught  him  -the  use  of  stone 
weapons  ;  and  we  can  hardly  be  surprised  that  the 
invention  was  not  only  anterior  to  history,  but  was 
even  unknown  to  the  earliest  legends.  Suetonius 
('  in  Aug.*  cap.  72)  gives  us  an  interesting  detail 
concerning  the  Caesar  who  may  be  called  the  Father 
of  proto-historic  Anthropology :  '  Sua  vero  .... 

HIS  BIRTH.  153 

excoluit,  rebusque  vetustate,  ac  raritate  notabilibus  ; 
qualia  sunt  Caprseis  immanum  belluarum,  ferarum- 
que  membra  praegrandia,  qua  dicuntur  gigantum 
ossa  et  arma  heroum.'  The  italics  show  that  the 
Romans  were  not  so  ignorant  of  palaeontology.  Al- 
dovrandi  ('Museum  Metallicum':  Bononise,  1648, 
p.  600)  calls  the  fossil  sharks'  teeth  glossopetrce, 
and  tells  us  that  others  had  termed  the  article  '  lapi- 
dem  ceraunium,  nempe  fulminarem.' 

The  first  undoubted  evidence  of  Italian1  man 
appears  in  the  diluvial  breccias  and  upon  the  Jani- 
culan  hill,2  at  Acquatraversa,  on  the  Via  Cassia, 
which  yielded  two  silex-flakes.  As  the  stone  im- 
plements are  transported,  it  would,  perhaps,  be 
logical  to  admit  the  possibility  of  their  pre-existence 
amongst  the  yellow  Tertiary  sands,  but  in  these 
they  are  yet  to  be  found.  The  flints  show  all  the 
characteristics  of  the  rudest  palaeolithic  age — the 
archaeoliths  of  the  Ponte  Molle,  the  Tor  di  Quinto, 
the  Monte  Sacro,  and  the  Ponte  Mammolo  are  the 
best  proofs.  According  to  Professor  W.  Boyd- 

1  I  say  '  Italian '  because  Professor  Busk  has  identified  with  the 
human  fibula  a  bone  found  in  clay  apparently  pre-glacial — this  would 
be  the  earliest  relic  of  the  cave-man. 

2  Ponzi,  Sulle  selci  tagliati  rinvenuti  in  Roma  ad  Acquatraversa  e 
Gianicolo  :  Bulletin  of  Cor r.  Stient.  of  Rome,  No.  3,  vol.  viii.,   1870. 
Cav.  de'  Rossi  expresses  his  doubts  (Congres,  pp.  452-3). 


Dawkins  ('Cave-hunting,'  etc.)  these  ancientest 
types  of  hunting  and  fishing  gear  have  left  their 
representatives  amongst  the  Eskimos,  a  people  still 
associated  with  the  fauna  of  the  older  Pleistocene  or 
Stone  Age,  the  reindeer  and  the  musk-sheep. 

III.  After    the    Diluvial    sets    in    the    Glacial 
Epoch,  the   second  period  of  the  Quaternary  Age. 
Under  the  ever  -  increasing   cold  the  rains  become 
snows  ;   polar  ice    drifts  towards  the  equator,    and 
the  glaciers,  Alpine  and  Apennine,  deposit  moraine 
and  angular  erratic  blocks  upon  the  abundant  con- 
glomerates  of  the   preceding   period.     The   atmo- 
spheric perturbation  is  accompanied  by  earthquakes, 
which  open  the  British  and  Saint  George's  Chan- 
nels, the  Straits  of  Gibraltar,  and  the  Dardanelles ; 
which  sever  Sicily  from  its   mainland ;   and  which 
form  the  Dalmatian  Archipelago.    Volcanoes,  chiefly 
sub-marine,  begin  to  discharge  lavas,  mostly  absent 
from  the  previous  formations.     The  sub-Apennine 
shallows  are  gradually  elevated  into  dry  land,  com- 
pelling  the    Arno   to    change    its   course :    Monte 
Pisano   sinks,  and   the  central  Italian  Archipelago 
becomes     a    great    gulf,    in    the    midst   of  which 
the    craters    of    Bolsena,    Viterbo,  and     Bracciano, 
linearly  disposed   from    north-west   to   south-east, 


vomit  the  palseo-plutonic  tuffs  which,  in  the  Roman 
Campagna  and  the  adjacent  parts,  overlie  the  dilu- 
vian  breccias.  The  subaerial  eruptions  partially 
arrest  glacier  formation  in  the  Apennines,  and  allow 
erratic  blocks  to  be  carried  beyond  the  limits  of  the 
ice  which  had  stunted  and  withered  the  flora,  and 
which  had  scattered  mountain  and  plain  with  the 
corpses  of  the  fauna.  A  mere  remnant  of  the  latter 
saves  itself  by  emigration ;  and  man,  in  the  acme 
of  his  misery,  is  not  wholly  destroyed  by  cold  and 
hunger,  those  implacable  enemies  of  all  life.  Wan- 
dering in  search  of  shelter  he,  also,  descends  to 
the  sub-Apennine  hills,  and  he  seeks  the  calori- 
ferous  centres  where  the  radiation  of  plutonian  heat 
defends  him  against  the  rigours  of  the  secular 
winter.  His  remains  are  shown  in  the  worked 
flakes  of  silex  yielded  by  the  volcanic  tuffs  of  the 
Campagna  di  Roma.  Shell-implements,  carefully  cut 
or  chipped,  and  pierced  with  a  hole  for  suspension — 
in  fact,  knives — have  lately  been  discovered  in  a  dilu- 
vial grotto  near  Les  Corbieres,  on  the  top  of  a  moun- 
tain overhanging  the  Padern  village.  This  novel  fact 
also  suggests  that  the  Rousillon  plains  from  Per- 
pignan  to  near  Estagel  once  formed  part  of  the  sea. 
IV.  During  the  A Ihivial  Epoch,  the  third  period 


of  the  Quatenary  Age,  the  cold  diminishes,  the 
glaciers  shrink  towards  their  former  limits,  the  atmo- 
spheric convulsions  and  the  eruptions,  both  submarine 
and  subaerial,  are  gradually  extinguished ;  and 
the  sun,  piercing  the  dark  fogs  and  vapours,  vivifies 
and  awakens  nature.  The  sea-bottoms,  strewn  with 
volcanic  deposits,  become  dry  land,  and  the  great 
river-valleys  begin  to  assume  their  actual  profiles. 
The  fusion  of  the  retreating  ice  and  snow,  coursing 
in  immense  torrents,  transporting  vast  masses  of 
abraded  matter,  resetting  their  sides  with  travertine, 
and  lining  their  soles  with  sand,  with  river- 
drift,  fluvial  conglomerates  and  huge  water-rolled 
blocks,  forms  deep  ravines,  and  traces  broad  beds, 
especially  upon  the  newly-born  plains.  This  action 
is  still  distinctly  marked  in  the  valleys  of  the  Arno, 
the  Anio  and,  to  mention  no  others,  the  Tiber.  With 
the  increment  of  heat  there  is  a  counter  emigration 
on  a  small  scale,  the  remnants  of  the  fauna  and 
flora  return  to  their  former  seats,  whose  temperature, 
however,  is  still  below  that  of  its  former  average, 
while  the  isotherms  occasion  another  geographical 
distribution  of  organic  beings.  A  new  vegetation 
supplies  abundant  food  to  the  animal  creation,  and 
man,  who  has  escaped  the  horrors  of  the  diluvial 


and  the    glacial   epochs,  quits   the   mountains  and 
begins  to  inhabit  the  plains. 

The  variety  of  silex-implements,  arrow  and 
lance  heads,  knives,  and  axes,  preserved  in  the  strata 
of  vegetable  earth  immediately  overlying  the  oldest 
volcanic  tuffs,  proves  that,  during  the  alluvial  epoch, 
the  palaeolithic  began  to  merge  into  the  neolithic 
age.  Signs  of  civilisation  appear  in  bone  (C. 
elapkns)  handles,  and  in  fragments  of  pottery — 
'  sibi  primum  fecit  agrestis  pocula.'  The  quantities 
of  stone  weapons  found,  for  instance,  at  Inviolatella 1 
(Campagna  di  Roma),  suggests  that  these  neolithic 
cave-men — according  to  some,  the  earliest  Aryan 
immigrants,  who  introduced  the  dog,  the  goat,  the 
sheep,  and  the  long-fronted  bull — either  had  their 
manufactories  or  fought  their  battles  there.  To  this 
the  Jury  ('  Congres,'  p.  513)  would  attribute  the 
Olmo  Calvaria,  a  calotte  found  incrusted  with 
several  centimetres  of  travertino.  At  this  period 
the  Bosprimigenius,  the  elephant,  and  the  rhinoceros 
(tichorrJiinos]  were  still  in  the  land,  showing  climac- 
teric conditions  which  differ  from  the  modern  (?). 

1  Ponzi  :  Sui  manufatti  di  focaja  rinvenuti  all'  Inviolatella,  etc. 
Accad.  pontif.  dei  nuovi  Lincei.  Sess.  i,  2  die.  1866.  De'  Rossi: 
Rapporto  sugli  studi,  etc.,  nel  bacino  della  campagna  Romana.  Ann.  de 
1'Inst.  de  cor.  arch,,  vol.  xxxix. 


Moreover,  it  is  remarked  in  Italy  that  weapons  of 
the  second  Stone  Age  outside  the  stratifications  of 
the  great  rivers,  prove  that  these  had  abandoned 
their  gigantic  primitive  beds.  De'  Rossi  disinterred 
silex  and  lava  instruments,  neolithic  arrows,  as  well 
as  archseoliths,  upon  the  flanks  of  the  great  Latial 
Cone ;  and  in  1866  he  made,  near  the  Anio,  above 
Cantelupo  (formerly  of  the  y£qui),  on  the  Via 
Valeria  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ustica  valley,  which 
discharges  the  Digentia  rivulet  of  Horace,  the  re- 
markable discovery  of  regular  sepulchres.  Two  sets 
of  crypts  or  small  galleries,  at  an  upper  and  lower 
horizon,  hollowed  in  the  travertino  which  had  been 
left  dry  by  the  retreat  of  the  Quaternary  waters, 
produced  five  intact  skeletons,  distinctly  establishing 
the  existence,  in  the  second  Stone  Age,  of  the  two 
forms  of  skull  which  are  still  found  throughout  Italy. 
The  adults  of  the  higher  sepulchre,  one  supine, 
the  other  doubled  for  want  of  room,  were  bra- 
chycephalic,  and,  though  one  was  rachitic,  both 
appeared  to  belong  to  a  short,  broad  race  ;  amongst 
the  many  arrow-piles  of  grey  silex  and  a  fine  knife, 
interred  with  them,  were  a  coarse  and  primitive 
water-pot  and  a  lance-head  of  fine  quartz  with  ame- 
thystine veins.  The  three  underlying  dolichocephalic 


skeletons,  apparently  of  one  family,  showed  much 
more  delicacy  of  texture.  The  bones  were  not  un- 
like those  of  modern  man  :  there  were  neither  arms, 
nor  fictiles,  but  around  them  and  at  their  feet  were 
found  remains,  some  worked,  of  the  dog,  horse, 
ox,  pig,  Cervus  elaphus,  and  perhaps  the  rein- 
deer. The  memory  of  the  neolithic  TTS'ASXUS  was 
long  preserved  by  the  Romans,  who,  in  the  Fecial 
rite  derived  from  the  Equicolae,  sacrificed  the  pig 
with  a  stone  hatchet,  and  it  became  the  sign  of 
Thurs,  the  '  giant,'  the  third  letter  in  the  Runic 
alphabet.  Similarly  the  Jewish  knife  used  in  cir- 
cumcision was  probably  a  survival  of  older  days. 

The  Hernician  ('mountaineer'  ?)  valley  especially 
became  the  seat  of  a  powerful  and  highly-civilised 
race ;  and,  during  the  period  of  quiescence  which 
followed,  Latium  began  to  build  cities. 

During  this  alluvial  epoch  the  ancient  volcanoes 
are  closed  by  the  elevation  of  the  land,  which  some 
call  the  retreat  of  the  sea  ;  and  other  subaerial  vents 
open  at  Tichiena,  Pofi,  Callame,  and  other  places 
in  the  Hernician  (Anagni)  and  Ciminian  (Viterbo) 
valleys.  Hence  the  subterranean  fire  passes  to 
Latium  proper,  whose  late  development  of  civilisa- 
tion was  probably  due  to  the  long  evolution  of  plu- 


tonic  disturbances.  The  Latin  eruptions  are  usually 
distributed  into  four  successive  eras,  each  separated 
by  periods  of  rest.  The  first  raised  the  great  Latial 
Cone  (Mons  Latialis),  with  its  central  and  apical 
crater  Artemisa,  and  its  ring  of  auxiliary  mouths, 
represented  by  Nemi,  Vallericcia,  Laghetto,  Valle 
Marciana,  Gabii,  and  others,  discharging  pyroxenic 
lavas.  The  second  movement  appeared  at  the  same 
places  after  a  period  of  calm,  shown  by  fossils  on  the 
volcano  flanks — for  instance,  at  Monte  Cavo,  which 
resembles  Vesuvius  in  the  Somma  Circle.  To  this 
or  to  the  subsequent  division  belongs  the  discovery 
of  bronze  implements,1  and  of  stones  which,  like 
the  Jadeite  found  near  the  Sabine  Sacco,  but  not 
existing  in  Italy,  argue  the  extension  of  commerce 
and  emigration. 

This  also  is  the  period  of  monoliths,  dolmens, 
mortarless  Cyclopean  walls,  and  hydraulic  works  cut 
in  the  rock  ;  and  to  it  we  must  refer  the  legends  of 
Picus  and  Faunus,  Saturn  and  Janus — '  those  old 
credulities  to  nature  dear.1 

The  third  eruptive  era  was  apparently  limited  to 
opening  the  Albano  crater.  It  spread  around  it 

1  We  have  the  testimony  of  Lucretius  that  bronze  was  used  before 
iron  ;  the  latter,  moreover,  was  long  prescribed  in  religious  ceremonies — 
for  instance,  of  the  Romans. 


not  vast  lava-rivers,  but  lapilli,  scoriae,  and  ashes, 
which,  converted  by  torrents  of  rain  to  a  muddy 
paste,  were  presently  solidified  into  the  volcanic 
conglomerate  known  &$>  peperino.  Upon  this  foun- 
dation Alba  Longa  was  subsequently  built,  and 
became  the  capital  of  the  Latin  race.  At  last  the 
craters  were  changed  to  rain-pools,  and  the  Alluvial 
Epoch  ended  with  scattering  lakes  over  the  surface 
of  Latium.  About  this  time  lacustrine  villages  were 
numerous.  The  Sabines  occupied  the  lands  beyond 
the  Anio,  and  the  Etruscans  settled  north  of  the 

V.  During  the  Recent,  or  Modern,  Epoch,  fol- 
lowing the  Post-pleiocene,  the  temperature  becomes 
what  it  is  now,  and  the  rivers,  the  miserable  rem- 
nants of  the  alluvial  giants,  shrink  to  citnettes  in  their 
huge  beds.  After  many  centuries  of  repose,  the 
fourth  and  last  outbreak  in  Latium  opens  the  little 
vent  of  Monte  Pila,  on  the  edge  of  Monte  Cavo. 
The  latter  was  still  in  eruption  when  Romulus  was 
laying  the  foundations  of  Rome:  Livy  (i.  31) 
mentions,  under  the  reign  of  the  third  King,  a  thick 
shower  of  stones,  and  a  heavenly  voice  sent  from  the 
Albano  Mount — a  prodigy  which  required  a  nine- 
days'  festival.  The  comparatively  modern  date  of 



the  convulsion  is  proved  by  the  potteries,  and  even 
the  libral  as  grave,  discovered,  like  the  cinerary  hut- 
urns,  under  the  volcanic  pepenno.  This  movement 
ended  in  earthquakes,  which  continue  till  our  day, 
and  in  the  transference  of  volcanic  tension  to  the 
south,  where  it  is  now  shown  by  the  Phlegraean 
Fields,  Vesuvius,  Stromboli,  and  Etna. 

THE  FOUR    WA  VES.  163 



THE  geological  sketch  of  early  Italy  ended,  I  would 
offer  a  few  remarks  concerning  the  successive  im- 
migrations into  the  Italian  Peninsula  which  finally 
brought  the  Etruscans — racial  movements  established 
either  by  old  traditions  or  by  modern  science, 
especially  craniology  ;  and  carefully  investigated  by 
later  writers,  especially  by  Pictet  of  Geneva,  and 
more  recently  by  Schleicher  and  Conestabile.  It  is 
beyond  the  scope  of  these  pages  to  notice  the  great 
Mongoloid  (?)  or  Turanian  (?)  substratum — which 
Prof.  Hunfalvy  would  prudently  call  an- Aryan,  and 
which  M.  Thomas  and  his  numerous  school  would 
make  superior  in  culture  to  the  Aryan,1  every- 

1  I  will  not  attempt  to  resume  the  discussion  about  the  origin  of 
'  Aryan.'  Some  (older  school)  derive  it  simply  from  ar,  the  plough, 
which  seems  to  have  originated  in  Bactria  and  Irdn  ;  others  find  many 
Sanskrit  and  Zend  roots,  as  arth,  ridh,  rh,  and  r,  meaning  noble, 
worthy,  rich,  honoured.  Again,  the  Zendavestan  tradition  assigns  to 
Thraetavna  (Indra)  three  sons,  Airya,  Caizima  (Shem  ?  ),  and  Tuirya 
(Tur,  Turan).  Firdausi  (loth  century)  makes  the  three  races  sons 
of  Furaydun,  and  his  Pehlevi  '  Irij '  (Airja)  was  the  youngest  but  the 
steadiest  of  all. 

M  2 


where  met  by  the  intruding  family ; 1  or  to  enter 
into  the  subject  of  the  Basques,  whom  Dr.  Broca, 
despite  their  splendid  type,  moral  as  well  as  phy- 
sical, would  consider  autochthonous,  and  whom  Prince 
Louis  Lucien  Bonaparte  would  make,  with  Hum- 
boldt,  Grimm,  And,  and  Rask,  remote  kinsmen  of  the 
modern  Finns  and  Uralians.  Nor  will  my  list  in 
elude  the  modern  Skipetar,  Albanians  whose  origin 
is  still  a  mystery,2  the  Gipsies  from  the  Valley  of 
the  Indus,  and  the  Magyars,  the  latest  flood  which 
the  East  poured  into  Europe. 

Sogdiana  and  Bactriana — apparently  the  earliest 
seats  of  settled  life  agriculture  and  comparative 
civilisation — appear  to  have  been  the  cradle  of  the 
conquering  race  whose  dispersion  throughout  the 
furthest  regions  of  the  West  was  accomplished  before 
the  tenth  century  B.C.  ;  and  the  following  are  the 
four  successive  waves  whose  influx  is  admitted  by 
modern  anthropologists  : — 

I.    The   Kelts   first   left  the  family   home ;  the 

1  It  is  still  uncertain  whether  the  first  neolithic  cave-men  were  of 
Iberian,  Mongoloid,  or  Aryan  stock. 

3  Perhaps  the  most  mysterious  part  of  their  language  is  the  way 
in  which  it  explains  the  oldest  Greek  terms  (Fallmerayer  :  das  Albane 
Elem.  in  Griechenland}.  Plutarch  says  that '  swift-footed '  was  'Aore're 
in  the  dialect  of  Epirus  :  it  is  still  Chpdte  in  the  tongue  of  the  Tosks 
or  Southerns,  and  Shpe"te  amongst  the  Gheghs  or  Northerns. 

THE  FOUR    WAVES.  165 

ethnologic  law  declaring  those  tribes  to  be  the  oldest 
who  have  been  driven  to  the  extremities  of  conti- 
nents:— the  voice  of  all  history  is  in  favour  of  their 
superior  antiquity.  They  are  supposed  to  have  taken 
the  direction  of  ancient  Hyrcania ;  to  have  passed 
south  and  west  of  the  Caspian,  as  they  planted 
colonies  in  the  Caucasian  Albania  and  Iberia ;  and 
to  have  entered  Europe,  of  course  by  land,  via 
the  southern  shores  of  the  Black  Sea  and  the 
Danube  Valley.  Thence  they  spread  westward  far 
and  wide  ;  they  occupied,  in  historical  ages,  Western 
Austria,  Northern  Italy,  the  broad  lands  afterwards 
called  Gaul,  the  P.yrenean  countries,  and  the  British 
Islands.  This  race  is  supposed  to  have  brought 
with  it  the  neolithic  Stone  Age  and  its  constant 
accompaniment,  pottery.  We  can  hardly  assign  the 
movement  to  a  date  later  than  thirty  centuries  B.C.1 

II.  The  Aryo-Pelasgi  are  supposed  to  have  emi- 
grated either  at  the  same  time  as,  or  shortly  after,  the 
Kelts,  and  they  followed  the  same  line,  by  Ariana 
and  Parthia,  but  a  little  to  the  south  ;  this  is  shown 
by  their  traces  in  Asia  Minor  and  on  the  ^Egean,  the 

1  The  wide  extension  of  the  race  justifies  Pelloutier  (Hist,  des 
Celtes,  p.  10),  who,  like  the  '  Ulster  King-at-Arms '  ('  Etruria  Celtica'), 
is  generally  ridiculed  for  seeing  Kelts  everywhere. 


Hellespont,  and  Propontis,  till,  travelling  by  land,  they 
reached  the  Mediterranean  shores,  Greece,  Thrace, 
Illyria,  and  Italy,  as  far  as  the  Alps,  where  they 
mingled  with  the  Keltic  Gauls.1  This  second  emi- 
gration would  continue  till  the  fifteenth  century  B.C, 
III.  The  Scandinavo-Teuton  appears  much 
later  in  history,  which,  of  course,  ignores  his  first 
coming.  The  group  may  be  divided  into  two  dis- 
tinct sections,  the  former  being  judged  more  ancient, 
for  the  same  reason  as  the  Kelts,  namely,  having 
been  pushed  further  west  by  subsequent  invaders ; 
but  the  similarity,  amounting  almost  to  identity,  of 
physique,  temperament,  character,  and  even  lan- 
guage, shows  them  to  be  brothers  rather  than 
cousins.  They  are  supposed  to  have  turned  north 
of  the  Aral  Lake  and  the  Caspian — the  negative 
proof  being  that  there  are  no  remains  of  them 
to  the  south — to  have  extended  over  Scythia  and 
Sarmatia,  the  land  of  the  Slavs,  and  to  have  en- 
tered Europe  via  the  upper  Danube  and  the  Rhine. 
Hence  they  extended  to  the  Baltic  and  to  where  the 
North  Cape  prevented  further  progress.  This  was 

1  Mr.  Edward  A.  Freeman,  judging  from  the  similarity  of  the  Latin 
and  Greek  tongues,  would  make  these  cognate  families  of  Aryans 
*  branch  off  from  the  original  stock  as  one  swarm  (?)  and  part,  most 
probably,  (?)  at  the  head  of  the  Adriatic  Gulf.' 

THE  SLAVS.  167 

the  noble  barbarian  blood  which  overran  the  declin- 
ing Roman  Empire. 

IV.  The  Lithuano-Slavs,  the  last  great  wave, 
passed  by  Asiatic  Sarmatia,  crossed  the  Volga,  and 
occupied  the  eastern  parts  of  the  European  Conti- 
nent, where  population  was  thinnest.  Their  ninety 
millions  still  hold  nearly  half  of  it,  being  limited  by  a 
meridional  line,  connecting  the  western  extremities 
of  the  Baltic  with  the  Adriatic,  bounding  the  Scandi- 
navo-Teutons  on  the  south  and  east,  as  these  bound 
the  Kelts ;  and  they  are  preponderant  in  Old 
Prussia,  Lithuania,  Russia  and  European  Turkey;  in 
parts  of  Hungary ;  in  Bohemia,  and  in  the  Eastern 
regions  of  Austria.  As  the  Latin  race  is  of  the  Past, 
so  the  glories  and  triumphs  in  arts  and  arms  await 
the  Future  of  the  youngest  member  of  the  family — it 
is,  perhaps,  the  most  interesting,  when  we  think  not  of 
what  it  has  been,  but  of  what  it  will  be.  This  emigra- 
tion appears  in  history  about  the  third  and  fourth  cen- 
turies A.D.  ;  and  the  Sarmatian  words,  Hun,  Geloni, 
and  Sciri,  or  Scirri,  have  given  a  terrible  significance 
to  the  modern  Scythian.  But  we  may  fairly  doubt  this 
movement  of  the  Slavs.  The  learned  Fortis  has 
detected  not  a  few  Slav  roots  in  the  names  of  regions 
and  cities  preserved  by  the  Roman  biographers  and 


historians  of  Dalmatia ;  and  the  Eneti  or  Veneti 
of  the  Baltic,  who,  distinct  from  the  Euganeans,1 
named  Venice,  and  whom  Mommsen  suggests  may 
be  Illyrians  or  Albanians,  are  still  preserved  in  the 
Wenden  of  adjoining  Styria,  popularly  known  as 
Slovenes.  This  would  denote  the  presence  of  the 
Slavs  in  Southern  Europe  many  centuries  before  the 
date  usually  assigned  to  them  :  the  question  is 
highly  interesting,  but  here  our  business  is  with  the 
second,  not  the  fourth,  member  of  the  family. 

The  first  wave  of  the  Aryo-Pelasgi  may  have 
displaced  the  palaeolithic  peoples  to  whom  many 
attribute  such  archaic  titles  of  the  Tiber  as 
Albula,  Rumon,  and  Serra.  These  were  the  Fauns 
and  Satyrs,  the  Caci  and  Cyclopes,  the  nymphs  and 
dryads  of  a  subsequent  mythology  :  here  we  find  the 
terra  filii,  the  aborigines  of  the  classics, 

Gensque  virum  truncis  et  duro  robore  natum. 

The  earliest  families  would  be  the  lapyges  of 
Apulia  ;  the  old  Italian  or  Messapian  coast,  now  the 
Calabrias  ;  the  Ausones  and  the  Opici,2  Obsci,  or  Osci, 

1  The  brachy cephalic  Euganeo- Veneti  are  generally  reputed  Illyrians 
or  Illyrio-Greeks  (the  brachycephalic  Albanians  ?).  Grotefend  (Zur 
Geographic  von  Alt-Italien.  Hanover,  1840-2)  would  derive  the  Italic 
aborigines  from  Illyria — which,  to  say  the  least,  is  not  proven. 

8  Thucydides  (vi.  2).  On  this  Prof.  Calori  remarks  :  (loc.  cit.  p.  19) 


who  drove  into  Sicily  the  Siculi  of  Central  Italy  and 
the  other  kindred  tribes  of  Lucania  and  Campania 
— in  fact,  those  thrust  into  the  extremities  of  the 
Peninsula  by  subsequent  invaders.  They  found  the 
mysterious  Ligurians  who  occupied,  not -only  modern 
Liguria  as  far  south  as  the  Tiber,  but  also  the  greater 
part  of  Italy,  and  who  apparently  extended  for  con- 
siderable distances  northwards  and  north-westwards, 
to  parts  of  France  and  even  into  Spain.  The  Ligu- 
rian  type  of  brachycephalic  skull  is  found,  not  only 
in  the  Certosa,  but  at  Torre  della  Maina  in  the 
Modenese  (Calori  and  Nicolucci :  '  La  stirpe  Ligure 
in  Italia  ne'  tempi  antichi  e  moderni.'  Atti  del' 
Accad.  delle  Scienze  di  Napoli,  i.  1865).  The 
author  holds  that  this  race,  cognate  with  the  Iberians 
and  the  Siculi,  occupied  the  greater  part  of  Italy. 

The  second  great  influx  is  that  of  the  Um- 
brians  and  the  Prisci  Latini,  forming  the  '  groupe 
Italiote '  of  Mommsen.  The  former  rounding  the 
head  of  the  Adriatic  and  penetrating  into  the 
Apennines,  occupied  Tuscany  (Dion.  Hal.  i.  19), 
the  region  between  the  Alps  and  the  Apennines — in 
fact,  the  eastern  lowlands  of  Italy.  The  Volsci, 

'  Per  Opici  non  si  devono  intendere  gli  Oschi  soli,  ma  i  terrigeni  od 
originarii  italici,  da  Ope  terra.'  Philistus  in  Dion.  (i.  22)  declares  that 
the  occupants  of  Sicily  were  Ligurians,  led  by  Siculus,  son  of  Italus. 


Samnites,    and  Sabines,    the    ,/Equi    and    Campani 
(antiquissimus  populus,    Pliny    and     Florus)    were 
branches  of  this  tree,  and  it  can  hardly  date  after  the 
twentieth  century  B.C.     The   Latins,  who  appeared 
about  the  same  time  as,  or  a  little  after,  the  Umbri, 
taking  the  westward  line  after  leaving   Lombardy, 
established  themselves  on  the  occidental  lowlands  of 
Latium,  upon   the   basin   of  the  Tiber,  where   the 
marshes  and  lagoons   of  that   age   permitted,   and 
perhaps    in    Campania,    the    lands    of    the    Opici. 
These   tribes,   marching  by  land,  must  consequently 
have  passed    through  Venetia,    Lombardy,   Emilia, 
and    Romagna,    doubtless  leaving   scattered   settle- 
ments en  route,  for  the  course  of  history  was  not  so 
regular  as   it  appears  on  paper.     All  had  a  know- 
ledge of  metals,  certainly  of  bronze,  and,  perhaps, 
except   the   earliest,    of  iron  :  this  fact  we  find  in 
the  pre-historic  terramare  or  mariere,  the  kitchen- 
middens  and  the  pile-villages. 

The  Umbro- Latins  were  shortly  followed  by  the 
earliest  maritime  emigration  that  of  the  Graeco-Pe- 
lasgi,  which  poured  into  Italy  via  Arcadia,  Thessaly, 
and  especially  Epirus  (Albania).  They  settled 
themselves  in  Magna  Graecia,  containing  lapygia 
(Apulia),  Italia  Proper  (the  Calabrias),  and  CEnotria 


(Lucania).  By  degrees  these  three  great  groups, 
marching  over  as  many  several  routes  to  the 
centre  of  the  Italic  Peninsula,  conquered,  by  arts 
rather  than  arms,  the  Ligurians,  and  the  vividus 
Umber,  including  his  Sabine,  Samnite,  and  other 
kinsmen,1  together  with  the  Prisci  Latini ;  extended 
themselves  into  Tuscany  and  the  Padan  valley, 
where  their  earliest  settlement  was  known  as  Spina ; 
and  reduced  to  Pelasgian  rule  all  the  choicest 
regions  east  of  the  modern  Lamone  or  Santerno 
River.  Their  empire,  characterised  by  its  Cyclopean 
or  Pelasgian  constructions,  must  be  held  to  begin 
with  the  fifteenth  or  even  the  seventeenth  century 
B.C.  ;  and  its  decadence,  which  might  have  arisen  from 
cosmical  causes,  earthquakes  and  eruptions,  is  re- 
lated by  history  with  fables  and  supernaturalisms 
which,  superficially  considered,  have  made  the  name 
of  Pelasgi  sound  quasi-mythical — '  like  the  knights- 
errant  of  the  Round  Table.'  And  yet  there  is  no 

1  'Nam  Umbria  pars  Tuscias  est,'  says  Servius  (ad dEn.  xii.  753)  ; 
and  Strabo  (v.  i)  informs  us  that  before  Rome  rose  to  power  the 
Umbri  and  the  Tyrrheni  fought  for  supremacy.  Pliny  (iii.  8)  tells  us  : 
'Umbro  (the  modern  Ombrone  river  which  bisects  Tuscany)  navigio- 
rum  capax  et  ab  eo  tractus  Umbriae  portusque  Telamon.'  Again: 
'  Etruria  est  ab  amne  Macra.'  Solinus,  Servius,  and  Isidore  report  : 
'  Veterum  Gallorum  Umbros  propaginem  esse,'  and  the  former  would 
derive  the  name  '  ab  imbribus.' 


people   concerning   whom    the    voice   of  antiquity 
speaks  with  a  clearer  or  a  surer  sound.1 

The  decay  of  the  Graeco-Pelasgi  was  followed 
by  the  emigration  of  the  Pelasgo  -  Tyrrhenians,3 
the  Lydians,  or  Mseonians,  from  Asia  Minor,  which 
still  kept  up  its  connection  with  Greece  and  Italy. 
The  Turscha,  Turs'a,  Tuirs'a,  and  Turis'a  of  the 
Egyptian  annals,  the  acerrimi  Tiisci  of  Virgil, 
are  supposed  to  have  come  by  sea  about  the  four- 
teenth century  B.C.,  and  they  occupied,  as  a  great 
military  power,  the  central  peninsula  with  300 
oppida  (Pliny,  iii.  14),  raising  themselves  upon 
the  ruins  of  the  former  races.  They  are  generally 
believed  to  have  first  founded  the  Tyrrhenian 
Federation  of  the  west,  '  Etruria  Madre,'  and  to 
have  crossed  the  Apennines  and  occupied  the 
Circumpadan  regions,  '  Etruria  Nova,'  as  far  as 
the  Alps  (Herod.  'Clio,'  94),  and,  lastly,  Etruria 
Campania  or  Opicia,  in  the  twelfth  or,  perhaps,  in 

1  Herodotus,  Diodorus  Siculus,  Dionysius  Halicarnassus,  Virgil 
and  his  commentators  (Servius),  Strabo  (especially,  v.  i),  Pliny,  Pau- 
sanias,  Silius  Italicus,  '  e  non  pochi  moderni  fino  alia  noja.'  The  tra- 
dition of  the  three  streams  is  preserved  in  the  names  of  lapyx,  Daunus, 
and  Peucetius,  the  three  sons  of  the  Illyrian  king  Lycaon. 

3  Pliny  (iii.  8)  :  '  Umbros,  inde  exegere  antiquitus  Pelasgi,  hos  Lydii.' 
Dionysius  Hal.  (Antiq.  Rom.  i.  20)  tells  us  that  the  Pelasgi,  uniting 
with  the  aborigines,  took  Umbrian  Crotona  and  used  it  as  an  arx  and 
a  defence  against  its  former  owners. 


the  thirteenth  century  B.C.1  This  would  be  about  the 
date  of  the  Trojan  war  (popularly  B.C.   1184),  and 
some  four  centuries  before  Rome   was   built.     But 
the    superior    antiquity    of   the     Rhceto  -  Etruscan 
alphabet,  the   rarity  of   Felsinean    inscriptions  ob- 
served in  almost  every  tomb  of  Middle  Etruria,  and 
the  archaic  finds  of  the  Tyrol  and  Bolognese  ter- 
ritories, may  suggest  that  emigrations  by  land,  and 
perhaps  settlements,  accompanied,  or  even  preceded, 
the  sea  voyages ;  hence,  possibly,  the  north-eastern 
was    the   most   sacred   quarter    to    the    Etruscans. 
These    peoples  brought  with    them    the    Phcenico- 
Greek  alphabet,  and  applied  it  to  the  dialect  peculiar 
to  or  adopted  by  them.     Thus  the  learned  Corssen 
('  Die  Sprache  der  Etrusker ')  finds  that  the  Etruscan 
alphabets    form    three    groups  —  Common,    Campa- 
nian,  and  Northern — whilst  each  has  some  peculiar 
letters,    and    others   similar   in    form,  but   different 
in  sense.     They  are   closely  related  to  the  oldest 
Greek  of  the  peninsula  (Cumse  and  Neapolis),  and 
this,  again,  is  the  same  as  used  by  the  Chalcidian 
colonies  of  Sicily.     They  had  learned  the  use  of 
tin  in  the  Caucasian  regions,  which  supplied  Egypt : 

1  Varro  (De  Die  Natali,  cap.  17)  says  450  years  before  Rome  was 
founded.  Niebuhr  (i.  138)  also  carries  back  the  first  Etruscan  saculum 
to  B.C.  1 1 88,  or  434  years  A.U.C. 


the  mines  next  worked  were  in  Spain,  and  lastly 
came  the  Kassiterides,  with  which  the  Phoenicians 
had  traded,  probably  during  the  domination  of  the 
Shepherd  -  kings,  the  Syro  -  Aramaean  Bedawi  in- 
vaders of  Egypt,  typified  by  Abraham  and  Lot, 
between  the  twenty-first  and  the  seventeenth  cen- 
turies before  our  era.  The  Etruscan  rule,  which, 
in  the  fifth  and  sixth  centuries  B.C.,  embraced  nearly 
all  Italy,  lasted — with  the  interval  of  conquest  by 
the  Kymric  Boii  in  B.C.  396 l — till  B.C.  281,  and  its 
dialect  till  B.C.  202  ;  thus  the  life  of  the  nation 
ranged  between  nine  hundred  and  a  thousand  years. 

1  The  legend  says  that  on  the  same  day  Veil  was  taken  by  the 




THE  collection  of  skulls  exhibited  at  the  Congress 
of  1871  was  in  no  wise  remarkable  except  for  its 
poverty.  The  principal  contribution  of  the  palaeoli- 
thic (post-Pleiocene)  age  was  the  (Colledel)  '  Olmo 
skull '  from  near  Arezzo,  now  in  the  Royal  Museum 
of  Natural  History,  Florence  :  this  calvaria  or  calotte 
was,  as  I  have  said,  found  in  the  diluvial  travertine. 
The  (Isola  del)  '  Liri  skull,'  also  dolichocephalous, 
and  probably  synchronous,  was  discovered  in  sand 
under  a  stratum  of  the  same  concretionary  deposit, 
80  centimetres  in  thickness.  The  cubic  contents  of 
the  latter  are  laid  down  at  only  1,306  cubic  centimetres 
(  =  79701  cubic  inches),  showing  a  brain  of  1,156 
grammes  (=2  Ibs.  878  oz.)  ;  and  the  likeness  to  the 
Engis  skull  has  been  generally  remarked.  The  neo- 
lithic specimens  were  more  abundant.  Two  skulls 
from  the  Monte  Tignoso  cave,  near  Leghorn — one 
exceedingly  brachycephalic  (ceph.  ind.  92),  the  other 


very  dolichocephalic  (c.  i.  71)* — show,  during  the 
second  Stone  Age,  the  existence  of  the  two  distinct 
types  still  characterising  the  Italian  race.  It  is  an 
observation  generally  made  that  the  modern  peoples 
of  upper  Italy  are  mostly  short-headed,  and  the 
southerners  long-headed,  whilst  the  two  forms  blend 
in  the  Island  of  Elba,  in  modern  Umbria,  and  in 
the  Province  of  Rome,  where,  however,  the  brachy- 
cephalic  is  said  to  be  waxing  rarer. 

The  Tignoso  skulls  are  both  small,  with  restricted, 
depressed,  and  narrow  frontal  regions,  and  exagge- 
rated occiputs.  Two  brachycephalic  skulls  from  the 
Grotta  di  Castello,  on  the  Monte  Pisano,  beyond  the 
Serchio,  greatly  resembled  them,  although  only  the 
calvaries  remained.  A  third  pair,  from  the  neo- 

1  Dr.  Paul  Broca,  the  learned  Secretary  of  the  Anthropological 
Society  of  Paris  (p.  398,  Sur  la .  Classification  et  la  Nomenclature 
Cephaliques,  &>c.j  Revue  d'Anthropologic,  established  five  several 
groups  : — 

1.  Dolichocephals  : —  Cephalic  Index.  Simple  Fractions. 

True  Dolichocephals,           75  :  100  and  below    =  \  or  f. 

Sub-Dolicocephals,    from  75*01  :  100  to  77-00    =  f. 

2.  Mesati'cephals,            from  7778  :  100  to  80-000  =  |  or  T8S. 

3.  Brachycephals  : — 

Sub-Brachy.,  from  80-01  :  100  to  83-33    =       I  or  £§. 

True  Brachy.,  all  above  83-33. 

It  is  rare,  he  tells  us,  that  the  mean  cephalic  index  of  a  race,  not  in- 
cluding its  deformities,  natural  or  artificial,  descends  to  71  or  rises  to 
87,  thus  giving  an  ecart  of  16  ;  the  normal  extremes  being  respectively 
65  and  92  (=  27). 


lithic  Caverna  della  Matta,  fortunately  had  lower 
jaws :  one  was  of  the  dolichocephalic  division  (c.  i. 
68),  very  long,  and  flattened  at  the  sides,  a  type 
found  in  Sardinia,  but  rarely  on  the  adjacent  con- 
tinent :  the  other  was  of  the  marked  brachycephalic 
or  Ligurian  type  (c.  i.  84).  To  the  latter  people 
probably  belonged  the  cannibals  of  the  Palmaria 
Island  in  the  Gulf  of  Spezia  :  their  remains  have 
been  ably  described  ('Grotta  de'  Colombi ')  by 
Professor  Giovanni  Capellini,  a  native  of  that  place, 
who,  at  the  early  age  of  34,  has  risen  to  be  Rector 
of  the  venerable  University  of  Bologna.  He  it  was 
who  conceived  the  idea  of  the  Congress  of  Bologna, 
who  has  taken  a  leading  part  at  every  meeting 
of  the  kind,  and  who  had  the  moral  courage  to 
declare  his  belief  ('  L'Antropofagismo  in  Italia  all' 
Epoca  della  pietra,'  '  Gazzetta  dell'  Emilia,'  no.  n, 
1869)  in  the  universal  prevalence  of  cannibalism, 
and  who  consequently  was  long  regarded,  with  the 
usual  inconsequence,  as  little  better  than  a  canni- 
bal himself.  I  am  pleased  to  find  in  this  savant, 
as  in  my  distinguished  friend,  the  anthropologist 
Professor  Carl  Vogt,  such  efficient  support  for  the 
theory  which  I  formed  and  published  many  years 
ago.  It  is  still  my  conviction  that  anthrophagy  has, 



like  polygamy  and  slavery,  belonged  to  all  peoples 
at  some  epoch  of  their  history ;  that  cannibalism, 
like  both  the  so-called  '  patriarchal  institutions,' 
not  only  satisfied  physical  wants,  but  led  to  moral 
progress  ;  that  human  sacrifice  ending  in  bestial  sacri- 
fice, which  in  turn  has  yielded  place  to  the  '  bloodless 
sacrifice ; '  and  thus  that  it  was  not  only  beneficial 
to  the  state  of  society  which  recorded  it,  but  it 
has  also  tended  to  the  progress  and  the  develop- 
ment of  mankind. 

The  only  specimens  of  the  Bronze  Epoch  were 
three  skulls  discovered  in  a  sepulchral  cave  of  Monte 
Calamita  (Elba) ;  and  they  were  described  by 
Professor  Vogt  ('  Di  alcuni  antichi  crani  rinvenuti 
in  Italia.')  Those  of  the  terramare  of  the  Emilia, 
also  bronze,  have  not  been  found  ;  but  the  kitchen- 
middens  of  Modenese  Gorzano  yielded  two  of 
Ligurian  type,  probably  buried  in  subsequent  times. 

Most  of  these  skulls  and  other  synchronous 
finds  (e.g.  the  brachycephalic  Mezzana  Corte,  etc.) 
have  been  commented  upon  by  Cav.  Dott.  Gius- 
tiniano  Nicolucci,  the  well-known  craniologist,  and 
the  accomplished  author  of  the  volume  '  Delle  Razze 
Umane.'  According  to  him  ('  L'homme  pre-his- 
toriqueen  Italic,' '  Congres,'  pp.  233-238),  thispalseo- 


lithic  or  early  Quaternary  man  represented  the 
original  and  primitive  type  of  the  actual  Italian 
races.  The  cranium,  here  short,  there  long,  was 
of  small  capacity  and  solid  thickness ;  the  form 
was  an  ogival  arch  spreading  out  posteriorly ;  the 
frontal  region  was  low,  narrow,  and  retreating,  with 
prominent  and  even  connecting  glabellce ;  and  an 
external  crest,  with  a  corresponding  internal  channel, 
ran  from  the  mid  -  forehead  to  the  centre  of  the 
sagittal  suture,  whilst  the  foramen  magnum  abnor- 
mally approached  the  occiput.  As  the  lower  maxillae 
are  wanting  in  the  earliest  specimens,  it  cannot 
safely  be  determined  whether  the  race  was  pro- 
gnathic  or  orthognathic  ;  but  the  strongly-marked 
attachments  for  muscles  show  vigour  accompanying 
short  stature. 

In  the  earlier  neolithic  age,  as  we  see  by  the  two 
skulls  from  Cantalupo  Mandela,  near  Rome,  there 
is  considerable  improvement ;  the  crania,  both  long 
and  short,  are  less  thick  ;  the  temporal  region  is 
higher,  straighter,  and  broader,  the  great  foramen 
is  nearer  the  axis,  and  the  posterior  as  well  as  the 
anterior  divisions  are  better  proportioned.  The 
capacity  and  the  contents,  which  in  the  Quaternary 
Liri  skull  were  1,306  c.  c.,  and  1,156  grammes  now 

N  2 


become  1,408  c.  c.  (=85-926  cubic  inches)  and  1,245 
grammes  (-=2lbs.  11-91  ounces).  Both  the  skulls 
above  specified  have  a  slight  maxillary  prognathism, 
corrected,  however,  by  the  position  of  the  teeth, 
which  are  set  vertically  in  the  alveoli,  and  we  have 
reason  to  believe  that  the  whole  body  had  followed 
the  progress  of  the  head. 

In  the  Bronze  Age,  as  we  see  by  the  skulls  from 
Torre  della  Maina  and  from  Elba  (/Ethalia,  Ilva, 
an  Etrurian  State,  according  to  Virgil,  x.  173),  the 
process  of  development  is  not  arrested ;  the  bones 
again  become  thinner,  the  capacity  is  1,500  c.  c. 
(  =  91*540  c.  c.  i.),  and  the  contents  1,326  grammes 
(  =  2lbs.  14-7802.);  about  the  same,  in  all  three 
points,  as  in  the  modern  man.  Lastly,  the  Age  of 
Iron  shows  the  greatest  removal  from  the  Quater- 
nary peoples  ;  and  the  types  begin  to  distribute  them- 
selves into  those  of  the  modern  Italian  areas,  with 
modifications  arising  only  from  cosmic  conditions 
and  mixture  of  blood! 

At  the  Congress,  Count  Gozzadini  exhibited  a 
valuable  series  of  26  skulls,  two  from  Villanova  and 
24  from  Marzabotto.  Two  of  the  former  were  pro- 
gnathous, possibly  distorted  by  pressure  ;  most  of  the 
latter  were  fragmentary,  and  all  showed  brachy- 


cephalism  as  well  as  dolichocephalism.  Prof.  Nicolucci 
(Sui  cranii  rinvenuti  nella  Necropoli  di  Marzabotto 
e  di  Villanova),  who  recognised  the  two  types,  the 
dolichocephalic  being  63  to  37  of  the  other,  having 
compared  one  cranium  from  Villanova  and  three 
from  Marzabotto  with  undoubted  Etruscan  speci- 
mens (in  his  Antropologia  dell1  Etruria  :  Naples, 
1869)  decided  that  the  four  former  were  non- 
Etruscan.  Having  also  failed,  after  equal  study,  to 
detect  any  affinities  with  the  Kelts  of  Cisalpine 
Gaul ;  he  therefore  concluded  that  they  belong  to 
the  men  still  holding  Bolognese  ground,  that  is,  to 
the  Italic  Umbri.  This  well-known  anthropologist, 
whose  opinions  carry  great  weight,  defended  his 
Umbrian  theory  in  two  letters  addressed  to  Count 
Gozzadini,  against  the  Etrusco-Ligurian  ideas  of 
Prof.  Carl  Vogt.  The  latter  had  judged  a  skull 
from  Villanova  to  be  of  Etruscan  type,  whilst  he 
attributed  those  of  Marzabotto  to  the  Ligurians 
('Sur  quelques  Cranes  antiques  trouves  en  Italic,' 
'  Bulletin  de  la  Soc.  Anthrop.  de  Paris,'  torn,  i., 
serie  2,  fasc.  i)  ;  but  he  also  persisted,  with  Lag- 
neau,  in  reviving  the  old  theory  of  Baer  (1839) 
versus  Andreas  Retzius  (1842),  that  the  Etruscans 
were  dolichocephals.  Prof.  Nicolucci's  theory  is  dis 


cussed  by  the  learned    Cav.  Dott.  Antonio   Garbi- 
glietti,  one  of  the  first  to  call  the  attention  of  anthro- 
pologists to  the  peculiarities  of  Etruscan  type  (p.  39, 
Sopra  alcuni  recenli  scritti  di  craniologia  etnografica 
dei  Dottori  G.  Nicolucci  e  J.  Barnard  Davis  :  Torino, 
tip.   Favale,    1866).     The    learned   Professor   Cav. 
Alberto  Gamba  (Special Report  to  the  Royal  Academy 
of  Medicine,  Turin},    after   honourably  mentioning 
his   brother  anthropologist,  declares  '  di  non  potere 
abbracciare  in  modo  assoluto  1'opinione  del  Nicolucci, 
e  cio  perche  la  differenza  di  forma,  di  proporzione  e 
di  misure  che  i  cranii  Etruschi  e  quelli  di  Marzabotto 
e   Villanova  non  sono   abbastanza    pronunziati  per 
dichiarare    questi    ultimi    di    stirpe    piu    moderna.' 
After  offering  reasons  for  this  conclusion,  he  adds  : 
'  Se  noi  osserviamo  lo  specchietto  dall'  illustre  dott. 
Nicolucci  presentato,  noi  vediamo  che    i    cranii   di 
Marzabotto  e  Villanova  appartengono  ad  una  stirpe 
differente  perfettamente  dalla  Celtica,  e  la  differenza 
sta    principalmente    nella    forma,    o    tipo    generale 
del  cranio.      Ma  se    osserviamo    le   differenze   dal 
Nicolucci    notate   fra   i    due  cranii    di    Villanova  e 
Marzabotto  e  quelli   Etruschi,  io  vi  confesso  ingenu- 
amente,  di  non  poterne  sottoscrivere  la  sentenza  di 
separazione,  ne  di  epoca  storica,  ne  di  stirpe.'     He 


thus  pronounces  all  to  be  of  the  same  race,  guarding 
himself,  however,  by  noting  the  insufficient  number 
which  had  come  under  his  observation ;  and  finally, 
he  offers  a  wise  caution  concerning  the  difficulty  of 
determining  the  characteristics  that  distinguish  the 
Etruscan  cranium.  A  people  which  emigrated  from 
three  different  regions  at  various  eras  not  deter- 
mined by  history  and  which  mingled  with  four 
older  races,  the  Umbri,  the  Ligurians,  the  Osci,  and 
the  lapygian  Volsci,  perhaps  even  with  the  Cisalpine 
Kelto-Galli,  cannot  have  acquired  the  racial  type  of 
cranium  without  passing  through  centuries  of  change 
and  the  progressive  development  of  pacific  institu- 
tions. He  would  therefore  hold  as  characteristic 
only  the  crania  of  the  Twelve  Cities  of  Middle 
Etruria  during  their  most  flourishing  period  500  to 
400  B.C. 

On  the  other  hand,  Professors  P.  Montegazza 
('  Congres,'  p.  239)  and  A.  Zannetti  (p.  166,  Studi sui 
crani  Etruschi.  Arch,  per  I'  Antrop.  e  la  Etno.  : 
Florence,  1871)  compare,  and  find  a  resemblance 
between,  the  Villanova  and  Marzabotto  skulls 
and  those  of  Chiusi,  Tarquinii,  and  well-known 
Etruscan  centres.  But  the  former  denies,  in  the 
present  obscurity  of  Italian  ethnography,  the  right 


of  giving  scientific  definitions  to  the  racial  elements 
which  we  call  Umbrian,  Etruscan,  Roman.  He 
cites  the  case  of  Sardinia,  where  he  made  a  fine  col- 
lection, and  which  he  carefully  visited,  not  neglecting 
even  the  smaller  villages.  Popular  scientific  opinion 
divides  the  island  into  two  zones,  Latin  in  the 
north ;  in  the  south  Arab,  or  rather  Semitic  :  yet  he 
observed,  without  noticing  other  secondary  elements, 
such  as  Siculi,  Catalans,  and  others,  a  distinctly 
Egyptian  type,  which  extends  even  to  the  neighbour- 
ing terra  forma  ;  whilst  the  peasantry  of  the  Canno- 
bina  Valley  retain  the  characteristics  of  its  old 
colonists,  the  Romans.  Prof.  Montegazza  espe- 
cially denies  our  ability  to  deduce,  in  the  actual 
state  of  science,  the  intellectual  hierarchy  of  the 
brain  from  the  shape  or  size  of  the  skull  which  con- 
tained it,  and  he  concludes  with  the  sensible  obser- 
vation :  '  Ou  s'introduit  la  passion,  la  ve"rite"  se  cache 
la  figure  de  ses  deux  mains.' 

Not  a  few  have  attempted  to  prove,  I  have 
said,  that  the  Boian  conquerors  buried  their  dead 
in  the  same  cemeteries  with  the  Etruscan.  This 
'  funereal  infiltration  '  is  generally  rejected  ;  although 
the  shapes  of  the  swords,  the  forms  of  certain 
objects  of  luxury,  and  even  the  mode  of  burial, 


seem   to  prove  an  interchange  or  a  reciprocity   of 
ideas  between  the  Etruscans  and  the  Gauls. 

The  'Thesaurus  Craniorum'  (London,  1867) 
of  my  learned  correspondent  Dr.  J.  Barnard  Davis, 
a  work  of  which  I  am  glad  to  say  that  a  Supplement 
has  been  issued,  contains  a  description  of  one 
Oscan  and  of  two  Etruscan  calvaries.  The  former 
is  quasi-brachycephalic,  and  the  very  narrow  fore- 
head is  a  striking  contrast  with  the  typical  Roman. 
Of  the  latter  pair,  one  (No.  769)  was  found  at 
Villanova  ;  unfortunately,  it  is  imperfect :  the  second 
is  by  far  the  finest  of  the  three  (No.  1,173, 
p.  85,  accompanying  the  Etruscan  inscription). 
This  large  calvarium  of  a  young  woman,  exhumed 
in  1857  near  Perugia,  is  exceedingly  like  an  ancient 
Roman  skull.  The  author  records  also  the  remarks 
of  Professor  L.  Calori,  which  are  principally  directed 
to  oppose  the  impression,  derived  from  certain  cases 
of  prognathism,  that  the  Etruscans  were  allied  to 
the  Ethiopic  races,  and  cites  Dr.  Antonio  Garbiglietti's 
study  of  an  Etruscan  skull,  which  exhibits  on  both 
sides  the  singularity  of  a  suture  running  along  the 
lower  edge  of  the  os  jugale,  and  dividing  the  bone 
into  two  portions.  Regarding  Professor  Calori's 
'  Phoenician  Origin  of  the  Etruscans  ' — I  shall  have 


more   to    say  of   it — Dr.   Barnard  Davis  considers 

that  the  opinion  of  such  a  competent  and  thoroughly 

honest    investigator   deserves    every   consideration. 

The  author  of  the  '  Thesaurus,'  however,  has  one 

good  example  of  an  ancient  Phoenician  skull  (No. 

1,174,   p.   86)  from  Sardinia,  and  he  seems  to  think 

that  it  does  not  agree  very  closely  with  the  ancient 

Etruscan.      He    mentions    the    fact    that    Dr.    G. 

Nicolucci,  who  described  and  figured  the  skulls  in 

the  Museum  of  Antiquities,  Cagliari,   classed  them 

with    those    of    the    Semites  —  Arabs   and   Jews. 

Finally,  he  has  an  Oscan  skull  (No.    1,049,  P-  84) 

from  Nola,  strikingly  distinguished  from  the  Roman 

by  the  narrowness  of  the  frontal  region. 




IN  order  to  interview  the  Etruscan,  a  visit  should  be 
paid  to  the  learned  anatomist  and  naturalist  Prof. 
Commendatore  Luigi  Calori,  whose  published  works 
require  no  quotation,  whilst  his  kind  and  genial 
reception  encourages  even  the  '  profane ' — in  the 
Latin  and  Italian  sense  of  the  word.  His  study, 
behind  the  theatre  where  he  lectures,  contains  19 
old  Etruscan  skulls,  and  he  will  at  once  point  out 
their  resemblance  with  the  '  massive  and  grandiose 
Roman  calvaria!  The  chief  points  of  similarity  are 
the  semicircular  lines  of  the  temples  ;  the  harmony  of 
the  zygomatic  arches,  and  the  pronounced  angular 
sinus  between  the  nose  and  the  frontal  bone ;  the 
great  development  of  the  superciliary  arches  ;  the 
square,  horizontal  orbits ;  the  posterior  position  of 
the  auditory  meatus ;  the  greater  bi-parietal 
diameter ;  the  heavy  mandible ;  and,  finally,  the 
strong  attachments  of  the  muscles.  Most  of  these 


crania  are  dolichocephalic  ;  one  is  decidedly  brachy- 
cephalic  as  a  German.  The  bones  vary  from  the 
very  massive  to  the  remarkably  thin,  and  the  first 
points  which  struck  me  were  the  shortness  of  the 
lower  bi-temporal  diameter,  the  long  square  face, 
and  the  flatness  or  compression  of  the  parietes, 
which  every  traveller  remarks  in  the  Bedawin,  the 
flower  of  the  Semitic  race.  Compared  with  the 
valuable  series  of  Umbrians  in  the  Museum  of 
Natural  History,  and  with  another  assortment  not 
yet  prepared  for  exhibition,  the  Etruscans  assert 
themselves  as  the  '  rerum  domini,'  and  they  give  to 
the  '  vividus  Umber'  the  mild  aspect  of  a  vassal 
wanting  animal  force,  the  prime  requirement  of  an 
imperial  race. 

Prof.  Calori  has  given  a  detailed  account  of  28 
skulls  in  his  folio  of  169  pages.  It  is  abundantly 
illustrated  by  1 7  tables,  with  the  skulls  reduced 
throughout  the  atlas  to  half-lengths  and  quarter- 
sizes.  The  lithographs,  by  C.  Bettini,  are  sightly  and 
artistic.  The  volume  is  entitled  '  Delia  Stirpe  che 
ha  popolato  1'antica  Necropoli  alia  Certosa  di 
Bologna  e  delle  genti  affini :  Discorso  Storico- 
Antropologico '  :  Bologna,  tipi  Gamberini  e  Par- 
meggiani,  1873.  Of  this  magnificent  work,  're- 


markable  for  its  material  execution,'  only  62  copies 
were  printed,  at  the  expense  of  the  City  of  Bologna  ; 
and  Dr.  Barnard  Davis,  who  was,  like  myself,  for- 
tunate enough  to  receive  a  copy,  inserted  a  short 
notice  of  it  in  '  Anthropologia '  (No.  i,  pp.  104-5). 
Needless  to  say  this  Edition  de  luxe  should  be  fol- 
lowed by  a  popular  one. 

Thirty-five  pages  (pp.  28-62,  chap,  iv.)  are 
allotted  to  the  questions,  '  Chi  fossero  gli  Etruschi, 
donde,  quando  e  come  venissero  in  Italia  ? '  and  the 
answers  are  peculiarly  unsatisfactory.  The  learned 
anthropologist  examines  and  rejects  the  Lydian  or 
Mseonian  legend  related  to  Herodotus,  concerning 
the  Tyrrheni  taking  ship  at  Smyrna.  This  theory 
has  lately  been  revived  by  travels  in  Lycia,  Phrygia, 
and  other  parts  of  Asia  Minor;  but  it  relies  mainly 
upon  superficial  resemblances  of  dress  and  orna- 
ments, of  games  and  other  customs,  and  of  archi- 
tecture, and  ancient  monuments,  as  the  Sardis 
Mound,  the  tomb  of  Porsenna  (Chiusi),  and  the 
Cucumella  of  Vulci.  Glancing  at  the  Pelasgic  origin 
assigned  by  Hellanicus  Lesbius,  he  notices  at  some 
length  the  terriginous  theory  of  Dion  Halicarnassus, 
the  profoundest  writer  on  Italic  subjects.  The 
latter,  in  contradiction  to  the  general  consensus  of 


antiquity,  twenty-two  classical  authorities,  denies  the 
Lydian  legend,  because  Xanthus,  a  Greek  of  Sardis 
and  nearly  contemporary  with  Herodotus,  was  silent 
upon  the  subject ;    and  because  the  Rasenna l  of  his 
day  '  do  not  use  the  same  language  as  the  Lydians, 
nor  do  they  worship  the  same  gods,  nor  resemble 
them  in  their    manners  and   customs.'     But   these 
are  negative  proofs.     Strabo,  the  contemporary  of 
the    Halicarnassian,    assures    us    that    the     Lydian 
tongue   had    died    out    of    Lydia ;    and    we    may 
reasonably  conclude  that,  after  distant  wanderings, 
and   the    Italianisation    of  a   thousand    years,    the 
Etruscans    might    greatly   modify,    in    fact    almost 
change,  their  faith  and  their  social  habits.    Nor  must 
we  forget  that  the  Etruscans  declared  consanguinity 
with  Sardis  on  the  ground  of  an  early  colonisation 
of  Etruria  by  the  Lydians  (Tacit.  '  Ann.'  iv.  55).     I 
see,  therefore,  no  reason  why  we  should  reject  the 
Lydian  origin,  or  even  the  derivation  of  Tyrrhene 
from  Tyrrha,  the  Lydian  Torrha  (Miiller,  '  Etrusk.' 
Einl.  ii.   i). 

1  Rasne  and  Resne  have  been  found  on  Etruscan  urns  (Dennis,  i., 
xxxii.).  The  late  Dr.  Hincks  identified  in  the  Perugian  inscription 
Tesne  Rasne  with  '  Etruscan  land ' ;  cei  with  '  and,'  and  tesnteis  with 
'  inhabitants.'  As  yet  no  Graeco-Etruscan  bilingual  inscription  has 
been  discovered. 


The  Professor  finds  analogies  with  Egypt,  as  we 
might  expect  from  the  records  of  the  '  Tursha '  in- 
vader.    The  three  Etrurian  Federations  of  Twelve 
Cities    suggest   that   of  Lower    Egypt,    which  had 
Memphis  for  capital ;  but  this  is  also  found  in  the 
Twelve  of  the  Achaean  League.     He  then  examines 
the  religion,  apparently  a  pantheistic  and  polytheistic 
naturalism,  composed  of  three  orders  of  gods,  one  of 
immortals  and  the  rest  mortal.     The  first  were  the 
'  Diisuperiores  et  involuti,'the/£?z£#2/fo7of  St.  Augus- 
tine, the  primitive  Matter  (Hebrew,  BoJm ;  Egyptian, 
Muf),  which,  uniting  with  generative  force  (Ba'al, 
Amon,    or    Kem),    the    nisus  formativus,    became 
Natura  naturans,  whence  Natiira  naturata.     These 
mysterious  deities  begat  the  consentes  or  complices — 
so  called  because  they  are  born  and  die  together — the 
'  conciliarii  ac  principes  summi  Jovis.'     This  work- 
ing committee  of  Twelve,  like  the  Triad  of  the  Brah- 
mans  and  the  Greeks,  and  the  Duad  of  the  Persians, 
contained  six   males  and  six  females,  the  '  Saktis ' 
symbolising,  in  the  faith  of  India,  Active  Energy. 
Lastly,  from  these  twelve  emanate  the  Genii,  whom 
the  Professor  compares  with  the  Vishwadevas  of  the 
Hindus,    and  whose    action    is  good  (Penates    and 
Lares},   bad    (Larva),   and    indifferent    (Le/tiures, 


Lastz,  and  Manes  or  ghosts)  :  they  may  be  reduced 
to  the  dualistic  form  of  beneficent  and  malevolent 
Genii,  superintended  by  Jove  and  Vejovis,  Hormuzd 
and  Ahriman.  Thus  he  deduces  an  Egypto- Phoe- 
nician or  simply  a  Phoenician  system  ;  and,  quoting 
Seneca,  '  Tuscos  Asia  sibi  vindicat/  he  opines  the 
Rasenna  to  be  Aryans  who  had  adopted  a  Semitic 



I  would  here  remark  that  while  the  cosmogony 
of  the  Etruscans  is  Asiatic,  the  vast  scheme  of  their 
religion,  numbering  upwards  of  200  gods  and  super- 
naturals,  connects  them  with  Persia,  with  India, 
and  even  with  Greece.  Moreover,  they  appear  not 
to  ignore  the  creative  Deity,  the  Demiurgos  of  the 
cosmic  system  of  Genesis.  Their  '^Esar,'  translated 
by  all  classical  authorities  '  Deus,'  would  be  the 
finial  of  the  temple  of  faith,  but  the  monotheistic 
element  is,  as  usual  in  polytheisms,  kept  out  of 
sight.  '  Speak  not  of  God  to  the  mob,'  said  the 
Pythagorean  ;  whereas  Moses  took  the  Deity  out  of 
the  hands  of  ,the  priests,  and  made  the  idea  the 
property  of  the  world.  I  have  elsewhere  noticed 
how  a  notion  of  unity  underlies  the  idolatry  of 
polytheistic  peoples  in  Asia,  and  even  in  savage 
Africa  ;  and,  judging  by  the  analogy  of  the  former 


with  the  civilisation  of  Egypt  and  Assyria,  Greece 
and  Rome,  I  have  little  doubt  that  it  was  universal. 
Here,  therefore,  despite  the  professional  flavour  of 
the  passage,  I  will  not  join  issue  with  him  who  says  : 
'  We  may  take  comfort  in  the  thought  that  the 
Heavenly  Father,  whom  they  (the  Turanians)  igno- 
rantly  reverenced,  did  not  leave  them  without  some 
faint  witness  of  Himself,  but  dimly  guided  them  to 
a  glimmering  knowledge  of  the  Eternal  Goodness, 
and  gave  them  also,  in  their  darkness,  the  solace  of 
that  blessed  hope  of  immortality  which  is  the  stay 
and  refuge  of  the  Christian  life.' 

The  language  is  then  touched  upon,  with  results 
as  meagre.  Our  author  notices  the  several  theo- 
ries :  the  Semitic  (Hebrew  and  Chaldee)  of  Janelli, 
Tarquini,  and  Stickel ;  the  Iberian,  or  Basque; 
the  Keltiberian  ;  the  Keltic  (Etruria  Celtica  of  Sir 
W.  Betham) ;  the  Teutono-Gothic  ( Bardetti,  Durandi, 
Bruce  Whyte,  and  Dr.  Donaldson,  in  his  '  Var- 
ronianus'), 1  and  the  high  German  or  Gothic  of 
Lord  Crawford  and  Balcarres.  The  last-mentioned 
author  (Etruscan  Inscriptions  Analysed,  Translated, 
and  Commented  upon  :  Murray,  1873),  makes  the 

1  He  judges  it,  however,  Pelasgian  corrupted  by  Umbrian,  and 
mixed  with  the  oldest  Low  German  (Scandinavian). 



sequence  Japhetan,  Aryan,  and  Teutonic,  and  iden- 
tities the  Tyrrhenoi,  not  with  '  High  Dutch,'  but 
with  the  Tervingi  or  Visi-Goths,  the  Thuringi  of 
Central  Germany,  and  the  Tyrki  of  Scandinavia. 
Furthermore,  we  have  the  Slav  (Volensky)  ;  the 
Armenian  (Robert  Ellis,  B.D.,  Peruvia  Scytkica, 
Triibner,  1875)  ;  the  Sanskrit  (Bertani)  ;  the  Graeco- 
Umbrian  (Lepsius)  ;  the  Rhseto-Romansch 1  (Steub, 
1843) ;  the  'Indo-European'  (Prichard) ;  the  Archaic 
Greek  (Gori  and  Lanzi)  ;  and,  finally,  the  Aryo-Italic 
(Mommsen,  Conestabile,  Fabretti,  and  Corssen, 
Ueber  die  Sprache  der  Etrusker,  2  vols.  Leipzig 
1874),  like  the  Oscan,  Umbrian,  Euganean,  and 
other  rude  dialects  of  the  ancient  peninsula — this 
theory  supports  the  Italic  origin  of  Dion.  Halicar- 
nassus  (Micali).  After  many  modest  professions 
of  incompetence,  our  Professor  ends  (p.  56)  with 
opining  that  '  i  Fenici '  were  the  ancestry  of  the 
Etruscans,  and  he  complicates  the  question  by  con- 
siderations of  descent  from  Ham  and  Shem,  which 

1  In  the  cognate  Euganean  tongue,  whose  alphabet  is  considered 
the  oldest  of  the  three  Etrurias  by  Prof.  Corssen,  and  most  like  the 
Carthaginian,  Count  Giovanni  of  Schio  points  out  the  thoroughly 
Aryan  words  mi  (I),  eka  or  ekka  (hie),  siithi  (sum],  and  cerus  manus  = 
Creator  Sonus,  the  former  from  the  root  '  Kar,'  doing  or  making,  the 
latter  recognised  as  the  opposite  of  the  Latin  immanis. 


are  somewhat  old-fashioned  in  these  days.  He  also 
finds  the  Phoenicians  in  Sardinia  and  Sicily,  perhaps 
in  Corsica  and  Illyria ;  he  traces  them  to  Western 
Italy,  as  at  '  Punicum,'  in  the  territory  of  '  Agylla,' 1 
as  the  Phoenicians  called  Caere ;  in  Rusellae,  from 
Rosh-El,  head  (-land)  of  God,  and  in  Telamon 
(Tell-Amun),  the  Hill  of  Ammon.  This  is  far 
from  convincing.  Niebuhr  says :  '  People  feel  an 
extraordinary  curiosity  to  discover  the  Etruscan 
language,'  and  adds  that  '  he  would  give  a  con- 
siderable part  of  his  worldly  means  as  a  prize  if  it 
were  discovered  ;  for  an  entirely  new  light  would 
then  be  spread  over  the  ethnography  of  ancient 
Italy.'  The  want,  I  fear,  is  far  from  being  satisfied. 
But  we  may  attribute  some  importance  to  the 
general  aspect  of  Etruscan  civilisation,  its  immense 
superiority  to  that  of  the  peninsula  generally,  and 
its  difference,  not  only  in  degree,  but  in  kind,  from 
the  social  condition  of  the  old  Italic  races.  Their 
cosmogony  is  evidently  Genesitic  ;  while  their  zodiac 
and  their  astronomy,  which  could  fix  the  tropical 
year  at  365  d.  5h.  40  m.,  and  their  architecture, 

1  Mommsen  makes  Agylla  Punic  and  Semitic.  Mr.  Isaac  Taylor 
(P-  347)  wonderfully  derives  it  from  Osmanli  awlu,  a  court,  and 
eyl  (or  *'/),  a  country,  as  in  Rum-Elia,  the  land  of  the  Rumi. 

O  2 


especially  the  Doric,  which  we  know  to  be  Egyptian ; 
the  winged  goddess  ;  the  modified  sphinx,  the  eagle- 
banner,  and  a  host  of  other  Nilotica,  must  have 
come,  not  from  Italy,  then  barbarous,  but  from  civi- 
lized Mizraim  or  Chaldsea. 

For  the  date  of  the  Etruscan  emigration  we 
have  the  suggestion,  that  it  might  have  begun  about 
the  seventeenth  century  B.C.,  when  Semiramis, 
the  Imperatrice  di  molte  favelle,  had  overrun  the 
so-called  Holy  Land,  Egypt,  and  Ethiopia  (B.C. 
1975).  The  incursions  of  Joshua,  son  of  Nun, 
into  '  Canaan '  (B.C.  145 1)  may  also,  as  legend  informs 
us,  have  tended  to  scatter  other  Tyrian  and  Sidonian 
colonies  over  the  western  world. 

Professor  Calori  declares  (p.  64)  that  the 
anthropologist  must  not  found  his  theories  upon 
legend  and  language ;  he  studies  the  crania  and 
the  skeletons  of  extinct  races,  and  thus  he  raises 
his  own  edifice  with  a  secondary  regard  for  history 
and  linguistic  deductions.  Our  anthropologist  sup- 
ports, on  the  whole,  Professor  Nicolucci's  Phoenician 
type  of  Etruscan  craniology,  for  which  that  dis- 
tinguished student  supplies  some  points  of  resem- 
blance. Yet  he  hesitates  to  pronounce  an  opinion, 
remembering  that  the  race  was  probably  anything 


but  pure  at  the  time  when  it  left  its  Asiatic  home ; 
in  fact,  he  does  not,  after  the  fashion  of  certain 
other  writers,  offer  himself  as  CEdipus  to  the  Etrus- 
can sphinx. 

We  now  come  to  the  most  valuable  part  of  the 
volume  (pp.  65  to  161),  the  technical  description 
and  comparison  of  the  skulls,  Umbrian,1  Etruscan, 
and  Felsinean  (from  the  Certosa),  which  are  com- 
pared with  those  of  many  other  races,  Phoenician, 
Jewish,  Keltic,  and  modern — unhappily  the  Boii  or 
Lingones  are  absent.  The  dichotomic  classification 
of  Retzius  is  adopted.  Crania  with  a  cephalic  index 
of  80  and  more  are  brachycephalic,  below  80  they 
are  dolichocephalic;2  and  the  various  subdivisions, 
as  orthocephalic  or  transitional,  mesati  or  meso- 
cephalic,  sub-dolichocephalic,  and  sub-brachycephalic 
are  ignored,  except  in  the  concluding  remarks 

1  Dr.  Paul  Broca  prefers  les  Ombres  (Umbrians)  for  the  ancient, 
opposed  to  les  Ombriens,  the  modern  races,  of  Umbria. 

2  Dr.  J.  Barnard  Davis  (Thesaurus,  xv.)  says  :  '  Where  the  breadth 
is  to  the  length  in  proportion  of  0-80  or  more  to  roo,  the  skull  is 
placed  in  the  brachycephalic  category ;  where  it  is  below  that  pro- 
portion, or  less  than  0-80  to  roo,  in  the  dolichocephalic.'     I  have  re- 
tained the  learned  author's  three  terms — cranium,  for  the  whole  skull 
and  face  ;   calvarittm,  wanting  the  lower  jaw  ;    and  calvaria,  when 
only  the  vault  of  the  skull,  the  cap  or  calotte,  is  in  question  ;  but  I 
hesitate  to  adopt  the  letters,  e.g.  A  (internal  capacity),  B  (circum- 
ference), C  (fronto-occipital  arch),  etc.  etc. 


(No.  5).  The  cranial  capacity  is  measured  as  usual 
by  sand,  when  the  cranium  permits ;  in  other  cases 
the  Professor  uses  the  rule  of  Broca  and  Beltrami : 
'  Multiply  the  three  axial  diameters  of  the  ellipsoid, 
and  divide  by  ^f .'  The  relations  of  pre^auricular  to 
post-auricular  are  obtained  in  two  ways  :  ist,  divide 
the  horizontal  circumference  by  the  bi-auricular  arch ; 
2nd,  divide  by  the  same  arch  the  fronto-occipital 
curve,  and  measure  the  proportions  in  front  and 
behind  it ;  or,  better  still,  the  whole  vertical  circum- 
ference, dividing  it  by  the  chord  which  is  the  base 
of  that  arch — in  other  words,  by  the  transversal 
bi-auricular  diameter. 

I.  Professor  Calori  begins  with  the  Umbrians, 
of  whom  he  had  collated  15  pure  specimens  in 
the  Anthropological  Museum  from  the  Contado  di 
Camerino,  where  the  Etruscans  are  supposed  not  to 
have  penetrated  ;  and  where  the  Romans  did  not 
rule  till  the  decadence  of  Etruria  :  he  compares  them 
with  a  much  larger  number,  the  modern  descendants 
of  Umbria  and  the  Marches,  not  including  Ancona 
which  is  Greek.  The  proportions  of  the  long  are 
8  to  7  short  heads  or  53  per  cent.  :  this  figure  is 
notably  different  from  the  actual  inhabitants,  who 
show  29  —  30  :  100.  He  describes  and  figures  five 


skulls  (Nos.  1-5,  plates  i.-iii.),  one  cranium  and  four 
calvaria,  almost  all  deficient  in  some  part. 

(a)  The  old  dolichocephalic  Umbrian  has  a  mean 
cephalic  index  of  75*07,  which  in  the  Roman  be- 
comes 7770.  The  average  cranial  capacity  is  1,375 
cubic  centimetre  (  =  8 3 '9 1 4  cubic  inches),  which  attains 
1,558  c.c.  (  =  95-082  cubic  inches)  in  the  Roman,  and 
1,506  c.c.  (  =  91-908  cubic  inches)  in  the  Kelt.  The 
latter  shows  a  marked  difference  from  the  former; 
he  is  not  only  more  dolichocephalic,  but  also,  like 
the  Keltiberian,  he  is  parieto-occipital,  instead  of 
being  parieto-frontal.  Amongst  the  19  Umbrians  the 
post-auricular  form  prevails  over  the  pre-auricular, 
and  the  pre-auricular  is  more  highly  developed 
horizontally  than  vertically.  (Nos.  1-2,  Tables 
i.-ii.).  The  sutures  are  pervious  :  the  norma  verti- 
calis  is  either  oval  or  elliptic.  The  norma  lateralis 
or  profile  (mean  facial  angle  79°)  shows  a  straight 
and  moderate  forehead  with  the  tubera  frontalia^ 
and  the  nasal  sinus  tolerably  well  marked ;  the  arch 
is  regular,  the  occiput  prominent,  and  one  (No.  3) 

1  In  many  West  African  skulls,  especially  at  Dahome,  I  remarked 
the  absence  of  the  tubera  frontalia,  or  rather  their  conversion  into  a 
tuber frontale,  a  central  boss,  whose  sides  sloped  regularly  away  in  all 
directions.  This  form  is  most  common  in  women,  and  it  gives  the 
face  a  peculiarly  naive  and  childish  expression,  the  reverse  of  intel- 


has  a  large  fontanelle ;  the  zygomatic  arches  are 
of  middling  strength  and  curve,  the  anterior  nasal 
spine  is  well  developed,  and  there  is  a  slight  alve- 
olar prognathism.  The  norma  facialis  (front  view) 
shows  a  fine  broad  brow,  a  large  glabella,  quad- 
rangular orbits,  horizontal  or  oblique,  and  the  general 
squareness  of  the  old  Italic  skulls,  especially 
inherited  by  that  '  quid  novum '  the  improved 
Roman.  We  see  this  in  the  statues  of  the 
Emperors,  and  we  can  hardly  wonder  at  it  when 
we  remember  the  origin  of  the  Luceres  (Tusco- 
Umbri).  The  norma  basilaris  (or  occipitalis)  gives 
a  well-developed  occipital  crest  and  semi-circular 
lines,  whilst  the  foramen  is  central. 

(b]  The  brachycephalic  Umbrian  skull  (plate  iii.) 
is  described  as  '  esquisitamente  bello':  c.  i.  8179, 
thus  not  very  short ;  average  cran.  cap.  only  1,409 
cub.  cent.  (  =  85*987  cubic  inches) ;  post-auricular 
equally  developed  horizontally  and  vertically,  whilst 
the  pre-auricular  preponderates  in  the  former  direc- 
tion— hence  the  brachycephalic  is  less  pre-auricular 
than  the  dolichocephalic.  The  sutures  are  mostly 
open  and  the  vertex  is  oval ;  the  profile  (facial  angle 
80°)  is  elegant,  and  in  one  most  elegant ;  the  fore- 
head is  straight,  with  strongly  marked  sinuses,  and 


is  rather  high  than  otherwise.  The  zygomata  are 
moderate  :  orbits  horizontal,  squarer  and  somewhat 
smaller  than  in  the  dolichocephalic ;  nose  not  pro- 
minent, occipital  tubercle  hardly  marked,  and  foramen 
posterior ;  there  is  a  slight  alveolar  prognathism, 
with  perpendicular  teeth.  Finally,  the  Professor 
notes  the  essential  differences  between  the  brachy- 
cephalic  Umbrian  and  the  Ligurian  (plate  viii.). 

II.  Of  the  Central  Etruscan  skulls  (9),  five  are 
described  and  figured  (Nos.  6— n,  plates  iv.-vii.). 
In  these  dolichocephalism  is  more  common  than 
amongst  the  Umbrians ;  Nicolucci  gives  37  :  100 ; 
Zanetti  23  :  100;  and  Calori  somewhat  reduces 
the  latter  figure. 

(a)  Of  the  three  dolichocephalic,  the  average 
c.  i.  is  75*63,  which  Nicolucci  marks  76'oS.  It  is 
thus  a  medium  between  the  Umbrians  (75*07),  and 
the  Romans  (7770).  The  cran.  cap.  is  (mean) 
1,375  c.c.  J  in  three  specimens  (Nos.  6,7  and  8)  it  rises 
to  1,629  c.  c.  (~99*4I5  cubic  inches),  the  Umbrian 
being  1,375  an^  the  Roman  1,558;  the  maximum  is 
large  and  almost  equal  to  the  Keltic.  The  post- 
auricular  constantly  prevails.  Sutures  all  pervious 
and  wanting  Wormian  bones.  Vertex  ovoid,  and  in 
one  there  is  a  slight  carena  bisecting  the  brow.  The 


profile  has  a  facial  angle  averaging  75°'5O.  Forehead 
almost  straight  or  slightly  oblique,  generally  some- 
what depressed  and  compressed  ;  temples  flat,  and 
lower  part  of  brow  narrow ;  orbits  now  square,  then 
circular,  here  horizontal,  there  oblique ;  face  longer 
than  in  the  Umbrians  and  notably  broader  in  corre- 
spondence with  the  zygomata  ;  nasal  bones  suggest- 
ing aquilinity,  and  chin  various. 

This  type  is  pronounced  to  be  different  from  all 
the  Italic  crania,  Ligurians,  Pelasgians,  Oscans,  Um- 
brians, and  Romans.  It  cannot  be  compared  with  the 
old  Egyptians  (17  specimens),  with  the  Helvetians, 
or  with  the  modern  Italian  Jews  (6  specimens).  The 
latter  are  much  more  dolichocephalic ;  they  are  larger, 
and  the  face  is  long,  whilst  that  of  the  Etruscan  is 
broad.  There  are  certain  points  of  resemblance  with 
the  modern  Sards  (22  specimens),  supposed  to  be 
Phoenicians,  such  as  the  proportions  of  the  pre- 
auriculars  to  the  post-auriculars,  the  cranial  arch 
and  the  frontal  height.  This  latter  approaches  the 
Egyptians  and  Phoenicians,  but  it  is  very  different 
from  the  Jews.  The  Phoenician  analogies,  whom  the 
Professor  will  call  '  Hamitico-Semites,'  are  given 
with  considerable  detail  (pp.  111-121).  He  cannot 
say  that  the  dolichocephalic  Etruscan  is  either  a 


Semite  or  a  Phoenician,  but  the  nescio  quid  of  the 
expert  suggests  Egypto-Phoenician.  In  conversation, 
Prof.  Calori  also  compared  them  with  the  Cartha- 
ginianised  Sards,  especially  the  modern  skulls  dating 
from  the  last  three  centuries. 

(<$)  Of  the  brachycephalic  Central  Etruscan  only 
two  skulls  are  given  (Nos.  10  and  n  ;  plates  vii., 
viii.).  They  appear  larger  than  those  of  the  ancient 
Umbrians  and  best  agree  with  the  old  Ligurians — 
c.i.  80*67,  and  cran.  cap.  1,479  c.c.  (  =  90*026  c.  inches) ; 
in  the  Umbrians  1,409,  and  in  the  Ligurians  1,461. 
The  vertex  is  ovoid,  but,  like  the  dolichocephalics, 
it  is  anteriorly  narrower  than  in  the  Ligurian.  The 
profile  (f.  a.  75°'5o).  gives  well-expressed  circular 
lines  of  temple,  deep  fosses,  and  strong  zygomatic 
arches  with  the  zygomata  turned  outwards.  The 
forehead  is  straight,  rather  low,  broad  above  and 
narrow  below,  like  ii.  (a] ;  it  has  a  sign  of  the  longi- 
tudinal carena,  and  the  sinuses  are  better  marked 
than  the  tubera  frontalia ;  the  orbits  are  small, 
horizontal,  and  deep,  rather  square  than  round.  The 
peculiarity  of  one  mandible  (No.  11*,  plate  viii.)  is 
the  wearing  down  of  the  teeth,  which  has  been 
noticed  in  several  others  :  the  corona  is  not  shortened, 
as  amongst  the  Guanches  of  Tenerife,  by  eating 


parched  grain ;  it  is*  reduced  to   two  large  cutting 
cuspides,  in  saddleback  form.1 

III.  The  Certosa  find,  where,  out  of  365  fu- 
neralia,  250  affected  inhumation,  appears  more  im- 
portant than  it  proved  to  be.  The  damp,  the  superin- 
cumbent weight  of  earth,  and  the  long  inhumation  of 
20  centuries  had  rendered  all  the  Felsinean  crania 
useless  except  16  (a  total  of  40),  and  of  this  poor 
number  only  one  was  perfect.  The  Necropolis,  how- 
ever, served  to  establish  the  average  stature  of  the 
race  ;  the  men  measured  175  metre  (=  5  feet  8-90 
inches)  and  the  women  1*58  metre  (=5  feet  2 '20 
inches).  Certain  analogies  with  the  negro  and  the 
pre-historic  man  were  shown  JDV  the  latter  ;  as  the 
proportional  length  of  the  forearm  to  the  whole  arm, 
and  the  thigh  to  the  leg,  together  with  a  higher 
degree  of  prognathism.  The  elliptical  perforation  of 
the  supratrochlear  fosses,  which  appeared  to  be  con- 
genital, and  not  the  effect  of  marasmus  senilis,  also 
suggested  Africa,  whilst  the  acinaciform  (en  lame  de 
sabre)  tibiae,  laterally  compressed  and  acute  at  the 
edges,  are  familiar  in  the  pre-historic  ~  skeletons  of 

1  Dr.  Paul  Broca  gives  the  indicial  differences  of  the  nine  Etruscans 
Proper  as — The  maximum,  8roi  :  100 ;  the  minimum,  70-41  ;  and  a 
mean  difference  of  io-6o. 

2  Dr.  Paul  Broca,  reviewing  Calori  and  Conestabile  (Ethnogcnie 


the  oldest  types.  Only  two  of  the  250  showed  the 
frontal  sutures  so  common  in  the  Umbrian  and  the 
Marzabotto  skulls  :  in  modern  crania  they  average 
7-10  per  cent.  Of  the  16  a  proportion  of  45  :  100 
were  brachycephalic, — Nicolucci  at  Marzabotto  pro- 
poses the  figures  46-65  :  100. 

(a)  The  eight  dolichocephalic  Felsineans  (nos. 
14-21,  plates  x.-xiv.)  unite  the  characteristics  of  the 
Umbrians,  Etruscans,  and  Romans.  In  the  six 
males  the  c.i.  averages  77*33,  in  the  five  females 
77*28,  giving  an  average  for  both  sexes  of  77*30.5  ; 
thus  they  are  less  in  length  than  the  Umbrians  and 
Etruscans,  much  less  than  the  Kelts,  and  corre- 
sponding with  the  Romans  (77*70).  The  average 
cran.  cap.  of  both  sexes  is  1,344  c. c.  (=  8 2 '02 2  c.i.), 
of  the  men  1,560  (=95*204  c.i.),  a  figure  superior 
to  the  dolichocephalic  Etruscans  and  Kelts,  and 
equal  to  the  Romans.  The  post-auricular  predomi- 
nates in  84  per  cent  In  two  specimens  the  bones 
are  so  thick  as  to  suggest  hyperostosis.  The  ovoid 
skulls  appear  anteriorly  narrow  on  account  of  the 

Italienne  :  '  Les  Ombres  et  les  Etrusques,'  pp.  289-297,  Vol.  III., 
Revue  d'Anthropologie},  separates  Pre-historic  (unknown)  from 
Proto-historic  (legendary)  and  from  Historic  (written)  :  the  latter  in 
its  positive  form  began  with  B.C.  500  in  Greece,  with  B.C.  300  in 
Southern  and  Central  Italy — famed  for  proto-history,— and  with  A.D. 
300  in  Northern  Europe. 


great  posterior  breadth,  yet  they  are  wider  than 
the  Umbrians,  Etruscans,  and  Kelts,  and  corre- 
spond with  the  Romans  ;  the  bimastoid  diameter 
gives  greater  breadth  than  the  Umbrians,  and  excels 
the  Etruscans  and  Romans.  The  profile  (facial 
angle  76°*25)  shows  an  arch  more  or  less  pro- 
nounced; some  are  flat,1  and  one  has  the  cacumen 
rising  to  the  phrenologist's  region  of  firmness,  often 
noticed  in  Piedmontese  skulls.  Forehead  not  high  ; 
occiput  projecting,  and  tubercle  well  developed ; 
glabella  larger  than  in  Etruscan ;  temporal  fossae 
rather  deep,  and  zygomata  turned  out ;  auditory  meatus 
central ;  orbits  straight,  round,  or  oval,  and  nose 
Etruscan.  The  teeth  are  fine,  somewhat  large,  and 
all  more  or  less  worn.  The  occipital  foramen  is 
central  or  posterior.  Thus  the  Felsinean  dolicho- 
cephalics  of  the  Certosa  show  a  considerable  Italic 
and  Etruscan  innervation. 

(b]  The  six  brachycephalic  Felsineans  (Nos.  22-28, 
plates  xv.-xvii.)  are  mostly  of  fine  proportions.    The 

1  The  traveller,  however  innocent  of  craniology,  cannot  fail  to  re- 
mark that  races  in  the  lower,  if  not  the  lowest,  stages  of  society — for 
instance,  the  so-called  Red  Man  of  North  America — have  the  upper 
part  of  the  skull  most  level ;  it  is  also  a  marked  feature  in  the  pure 
negro  of  Central  Intertropical  Africa.  The  cacumen  at  the  apex  of 
the  cranium  is  highly  developed  in  the  Bedawin,  a  race  of  no  '  educa- 
tion '  but  of  much  culture. 


average  c.i.  is  83*21  ;  the  mean  cran.  cap.  1,487  c.c. 
(  =  90749  c.i.).  The  post-auricular  prevails  as  8470 
per  cent.,  the  occiput  showing  a  pronounced  tuber- 
cle. The  ovoid  is  more  or  less  short  and  broad, 
in  one  case  almost  an  ellipsis.  The  forehead 
(fac.  ang.  75°*5o),  straight  or  oblique,  is  moderately 
high ;  the  meatus  auditorius  is  central ;  the  orbits 
are  rather  horizontal  and  circular ;  the  nose  is 
gently  curved,  and  the  mandible  is  robust,  with  fine 
large  and  vertical  teeth.  The  facial  region  is 
elongated.  The  occipital  foramen  is  less  central 
than  in  the  dolichocephalics. 

Thus  the  Felsineans  are  the  least  dolichocephalic 
of  the  three  races,  the  c.i.  averaging  79*35  ;  the 
Umbrians  78*2 1,  and  the  Etruscans  76*22  :  whilst 
the  maximum  is  86*36,  and  the  minimum  is  75*00 — 
an  extreme  difference  of  only  11*36.  In  cran.  cap., 
i, 464  c.c.  (  89*345  c.i.)  they  stand  between  the 
Umbrians  (1,386  c.c.  =84*385  c.i.)  and  the  Etrus- 
cans (1,481  c.c.  =90*383  c.i.)  Assuming  100  as  the 
post-auricular  unity  in  both  directions,  the  relative 
pre-auricular  proportions  are  expressed  by  the  follow- 
ing numbers : — 


Felsinean  Skulls.  Etruscan.  TJmbrian. 

90-68  95- 1 7  9071 

84-89  89-26  85-18 


Thus  the  post-auricular,  which  invariably  pre- 
ponderates, is  less  in  the  Etruscans,  whilst  the 
Felsineans  and  Umbrians,  although  the  circum- 
ference differs  in  both,  show  nearly  equal  propor- 
tions. The  Felsineans,  compared  with  a  hundred 
modern  Bolognese  skulls,  are  in  some  points 
remarkably  similar ;  the  difference  of  the  cran.  cap. 
(Fel.  1,464,  and  Bol.  1,475)  is  only  n  cub.  cent. 
The  Bolognese  is  shorter  and  broader,  his  post- 
auricular  being  264,  to  262  millimetres  (10*3937  to 
10*3149  inches)  of  pre-auricular,  figures  which  in  the 
Felsineans  are  279  and  253  (=10*9842  to  9*9606). 
The  general  conclusions  which  Prof.  Calori  draws 
from  his  minute  craniological  observations,  of  which 
this  is  the  merest  sketch,  are  the  following  : — 

1.  The    old  necropolis    'alia  Certosa'    is    that 
of   the    *  Lucumonian  City,'  Etruscan    Felsina.     It 
probably   continued   to    be   the    Felsineo-Etruscan 
cemetery  after  the  Boian  invasion,  and,  as  the  uncial 
as  seems  to  prove,  it  served  till  the  end  of  the  sixth 
century  of  Rome.     There  is  no  proof  of  any  Boian 
element  having  entered  it. 

2.  Felsina  was  first  an  Umbrian  and  afterwards 
an  Etruscan  city ;  its  population  was  composed  of 
Umbrians,  or  rather   Italic  peoples,  of  Etruscans, 
and  of  other  races  in  minor  proportions. 


3.  The  Italic  tree,  of  whom  the  Umbrians  were 
an   important  off-shoot,   is   a   branch  of  the    Italo- 
Grecian  stem — in  one  word,  Aryan. 

4.  On  the  other  hand,   we   cannot  with   equal 
certainty  define,  either  by  history,   by   monumental 
remains,  or  by  anthropological  science,  the  origin  of 
the  Etruscans,  or    determine   whether    they    were 
Aryans  or  Semites,  or  a  mixture  of  both,  or  Aryans 
and    '  Hamites '    or    '  Hamitico-Semites.'    Fourteen 
centuries  before  our  era  we  find  them,  leagued  with 
the  Lycians  and  other  Mediterraneans,  battling  with 
the  Pharaoh  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Nile  ;  and  we  see 
them  in  remote  ages  the  most  civilised  and  power- 
ful of  the  Etruscan  peoples.     Beyond  that,  our  view 
is  limited  by  the  glooms  of  the  past. 

5.  The  Umbrian  and  Etruscan  skulls  show  an 
intermediate    or   transitional    rather    than    a   pure 
dolichocephalism,  and    the  long   is   more   common 
than  the  short  head ;  whilst  brachycephalism  is  more 
frequent  amongst  the  Umbrians  than  amongst  the 

6.  In  the   Umbrian  and  the  Etruscan  dolicho- 
cephalic skulls   the   latter   are    distinguished   by   a 
superior   cranial    capacity,    by  a   somewhat   longer 
form,  by  less  disproportion  between  the  pre-auricular 



and  the  post-auricular  halves,  by  increased  length  of 
face,  by  more  frequent  prognathism,  and,  finally,  by 
greater  disproportion  between  the  transverse  dia- 
meter of  the  lower  frontal  and  the  inter-zygomatic 
lines — peculiarities  which  make  the  true  Etruscan 
skull  a  well-marked  type. 

7.  In  the  Umbrian  and  Etruscan  brachycephalic 
skulls  there  are  also  distinctions  :  the  former  espe- 
cially  cannot    be   confounded  with    the    Ligurian ; 
they   appear   to   belong   to   another    root   (stirpe] ; 
perhaps  to  the  Illyrian,  the   Albanese,  or  the  Epi- 

8.  In   the   Certosa   skulls   we   also    find    more 
frequent  brachycephalism,  nearly  in  the  same  ratio 
observed   amongst   the    Umbrians,    and    an    inter- 
mediate   dolichocephalism    neither    decidedly     Um- 


brian  nor  decidedly  Etruscan,  but,  as  in  the  case 
of  mixed  races  generally,  sharing  the  peculiarities 
of  both  peoples. 

9.  The    brachycephalic    Felsineans    may    have 
been  mixed  with  the  Ligurians,  but  the  proportions 
in  that  case  were  small ;  the  greater  number  points, 
like  the  Umbrians,  to  another  root,  or,  perhaps,  to 
several  different  roots. 

10.  We  have  no  data  to  determine  whether  the 


Boians,  Lingonians,  and  Keltic  Gauls  were  dolicho- 
cephalic or  brachycephalic ;  and,  supposing  that  they 
modified  the  Felsineans,  we  can  hardly  conjecture 
what  that  modification  may  have  been. 

n.  Finally,  the  modern  Bolognese  skullsf  are 
more  frequently  brachycephalic,  and  show  a  much 
greater  pre-auricular  development  than  the  old 





PROFESSOR  CALORI  showed  scant  sympathy  with 
the  Turanian  or  Mongolian  theory,  which  has  been 
patronised  by  Pruner  Bey  and  G.  Lagneau,  and 
which  was  not  wholly  rejected  by  the  learned 
Nicolucci.  In  England  the  Altaic,  or — as  the 
author  calls  it,  Ugric — tribe  of  Turanian  has  lately 
been  advocated  in  England,  on  linguistic  and 
mythological  grounds,  by  one  of  those  marvellous 
popular-scientific  books,  like  '  The  One  Primaeval 
Language,'  and  '  India  in  Greece,'  by  which  the 
abuse  of  '  private  judgment,'  and,  perhaps,  a  '  com- 
pound ignorance '  of  the  subject,  periodically  causes 
the  reading  world  of  Europe  to  laugh,  and  the 
British  Orientalist  to  blush. 

'  Etruscan  Researches/  by  the  Rev,  Isaac 
Taylor  (London,  Macmillan  &  Co.,  1874),  sets  out 
with  a  thoroughly  erroneous  and  obsolete  assertion 
which  succeeds  in  vitiating  almost  every  research. 


We  are  told  at  the  first  opportunity  (p.  2)  that  '  the 
ultimate  and  surest  test  of  race  is  language.'  As 
the  multitude  of  general  readers  still  allows  itself 
to  be  misled  upon  this  point,  whose  proper  deter- 
mination is  essential  to  all  correct  anthropology, 
I  will  consider  it  in  a  few  words. 

Long  ago  my  friend  Prof.  Carl  Vogt  asserted  and 
proved  that  '  un  peuple  peut  toujours  avoir  adopte 
une  langue  qui  n'^tait  pas  la  sienne.'  We  have 
familiar  instances  of  the  Longobardi  in  Italy,  the 
Franks  in  France,  and  the  Visigoths  in  Spain, 
changing  their  own  tongues  for  various  forms  of 
neo-Latin.  The  Aryan-speaking  Baloch  merge  their 
rugged  variant  of  Persian  into  the  Arabic  of  Maskat, 
and  into  the  African  Kisawahili  or  lingua-franco, 
of  Zanzibar.  Well  worth  repeating  are  the  words 
of  Prince  Louis  Lucien  Bonaparte  ('  Anthrop.  Inst.' 
Feb.  9,  1875):  '  It  is  a  bold  theory  to  advance 
that  language  is  a  test  of  race,  and  a  no  less  bold 
opinion  that  language  should  be  rejected  as  an 
evidence  in  the  question.'  Finally  (p.  356),  we 
have  the  obsolete  '  Grimm's  Law '  about  the  '.  drei 
Kennzeichen  der  Urverwandtschaft ; '  the  three 
signs  of  primordial  affinity  of  languages,  being  the 
numerals,  the  personal  pronouns,  and  certain  forms 


of  the  substantive  verb.  The  importance  of  nume- 
rals is  especially  laid  down  ^p.  158),  when  all  know 
that  they  are  exceedingly  liable  to  phonetic  decay, 
especially  those  most  used  ;  for  instance,  eka  (San- 
skrit), ii$,  unus,  and  jedian  (Slovene).  Mr.  Robert 
Ellis  has  fallen  into  the  same  trap  when  advocating 
primaeval  unity. 

Bearing  in  mind  Prince  Bonaparte's  sensible 
limitation  we  proceed  to  the  process  by  which  the 
Etruscan  Researcher,  who  speaks  (p.  182)  of  'the 
discovery  of  Sanskrit,'  has  invented  for  the  Etrus- 
cans a  dialect  of  his  own.  Before  him  others  have 
adopted  the  facile  plan  of  compulsing  a  host  of 
dictionaries,  vocabularies,  and  strings  of  words, 
Hebrew,  Chaldaic,  Arabic,  and  Syriac,  Himyaritic, 
Ethiopic,  and  Coptic,  and  of  compelling  one  of  them 
to  afford  the  explanation  required.  This  is  a  pro- 
cess which,  by-the-by,  I  am  sorry,  in  the  interests 
of  '  glottology,'  to  see  spreading :  without  exact 
historic  knowledge  and  extensive  linguistic  practice 
it  can  only  do  harm.  Similarly  our  author,  by 
turning  over  the  eleven  volumes  of  '  Nordische 
Reisen,'  etc.,  and  Alexander  Castren  (Finn,  Myth, 
etc.),  and  by  borrowing  from  the  dialects  of  some 
48  detached  Turanian  tribes,  ranging  between  the 


Ainos  and  the  Magyars,  the  Finns  and  the  Seljuks 
(Osmanlis),  has  created  a  conglomerate  never 
yet  spoken,  nor  ever  possible  to  be  spoken,  by 
mortal  man.  He  rarely  attempts  an  explanation 
of  the  phonetic  laws  which  govern  his  cognate 
languages  ;  he  relies,  not  upon  grammar  and  for- 
mative system,  but  on  detached  words ;  and  he 
treats  the  digraphic  and  other  inscriptions,  not  as 
a  decipherer  or  an  archaeologist,  but  as  a  'com- 
parative philologist.'  And — will  it  be  believed? 
— this  pseudo-speech  is  made,  with  dogmatic 
self-confidence,  to  explain  the  origin  of,  not 
only  Lycians,  Carians  and  Phyrygians,  Cilicians 
and  Pisidians,  Ligures  and  Leleges,  but  of  the 
debated  Euskaric  and  even  the  ancient  Egyptian 
(Coptic,  p.  39),  whilst  in  p.  68  we  are  told 
that  Egypt  is  a  Semitic  region ;  and,  finally,  the 
mysterious  Albanian  is  simply  the  vulgar  Finnic 
— '  Tosk '  being  converted,  not  honestly,  into 
'  Toscans '  (p.  20). 

Another  unsupported  and  erroneous  assertion 
is,  that  mythology,  like  language,  is  an  'absolutely 
conclusive  test  of  (racial)  affinity'  (p.  85).  It  often 
represents  certain  phases  of  social  development 
through  which  all  civilised  peoples  have  passed, 


and  the  same  basis  of  religion— which  we  may,  in 
the  absence  of  a  better  word,  call  Fetishism — has 
served  for  the  Aryan  and  the  Semite  as  well  as  for 
the  Turanian. 

The  worship  of  the  dead  is  held  by  some 
reviewers  to  be  the  strongest  argument  of  Turanian 
affinities.  They  will  find  it  throughout  half-civilized 
Africa,  Dahome,  for  instance.  The  '  Ugric  practice 
of  sorcery '  (p.  14)  is  simply  universal ;  every 
reader  of  Blackland  travels  is  familiar  with  that  stage 
of  society ;  and  '  magic '  need  not  be  derived  from 
'  Magi '  (p.  79)  when  we  have  the  Persian  equiva- 
lent 'mugh'  (/**)  a.  magus.  Animism  is  repre- 
sented to  be  the  peculiar  creed  of  the  Turanians 
(P-  35)'  wnen  it  is  the  dawn  of  faith,  the  belief 
in  things  unseen ;  therefore  it  was  universal,  and 
it  lingers  in  the  most  advanced  creeds — for  instance, 
in  Christianity,  to  whose  spirit  the  material  ghost  is 
opposed.  We  have  (p.  84)  the  vague  assertion  that 
"Semitic  races  tend  to  a  theocracy,  while  the  ten- 
dency of  the  Aryans  is  to  a  democratic  government:  " 
this  view  is  formed  by  reading  only  Jewish,  Greek, 
and  Roman  history  ;  but  the  Bedawin,  the  type  of  the 
so-called  Semitic  race,  have  never  shown  a  symptom 
of  theocracy,  and,  indeed,  may  be  said  to  be  of  no 


religion  at  all.  '  The  Turanian  tombs  are  family- 
tombs  '  (p.  36) ;  but  what  are  the  so-called  '  Tombs 
of  the  Kings'  and  'of  the  Prophets'  near  Jeru- 
salem ?  What  are  those  of  Dahome,  Ashanti,  and 
Benin  ? — perhaps  these  also  are  Turanian  !  Of  the 
contradiction  about  the  temple  and  the  tomb  (pp.  41 
and  49)  I  have  already  spoken.  Even  Stonehenge 
(p.  43)  is  a  primaeval  sepulchre  of  the  Turanian 
type,  when  Mr.  James  Fergusson  has  proved  it  to 
be  comparatively  modern.  I  presume  that  Pococke's 
'  two  black  demons '  who  '  dwell  in  the  sepulchre 
with  the  (Moslem)  dead'  (p.  117,  from  Dennis  i., 
310)  are  our  old  friends  the  Angels  Munkir  and 
Nakir,  known  to  Lord  Byron  ;  they  simply  visit  the 
corpse  for  the  purpose  of  questioning  it.  And  most 
people  know  that  the  Arab  Jinn  was  a  human  shape 
made  of  fire,  not  'an  unsubstantial  body  of  the 
nature  of  smoke'  (p.  127). 

The  geographer  and  anthropologist  stand  aghast 
before  the  seven  '  Ethnographic  Notes  '  which  con- 
tain such  assertions  as  these.  '  This  is  an  absolute 
note :  No  Aryan  or  Semitic  people  is  found 
separated  by  any  great  interval  from  other  nations 
of  a  kindred  race  '  (p.  69).  Some  have  traced  the 
Aryan  tongue  to  South  America,  and  what  are  the 


Gipsies  scattered  about  the  Old  and  New  Worlds  ? 
Are  the  Jews  Semites  or  Turanians  ?  And  the 
Arab,  who,  in  pre-historic  times,  spread  north-east 
to  Samarkand,  south-east  to  Malabar,  south  -  west 
to  Zanzibar  and  Kafirland,  and  west  to  Morocco 
and  to  Spain  ?  Is  this  '  an  unbroken  continuous 
block  without  detached  outliers'?  How  can  it  be 
said  that  the  '  conquests  of  the  Goths,  Vandals,  and 
other  Teutonic  (add,  Scandinavian),  and  Slavonic 
(Slav)  1  races'  were  the  'conquests  of  armies  rather 
than  the  migrations  of  nations  '  (p.  81)  ?  It  sounds 
passing  strange  to  an  Englishman  in  Istria,  sur- 
rounded by  vestiges  of  Kelts  and  Romans,  and 
preserved  by  a  Scythian  population.  We  read, 
again,  (ibid.}  the  '  Turks  have  developed  a  re- 
markable genius  for  the  government  and  organisa- 
tion of  subject  races,'  when  the  experience  of  the 
Eastern  man  is  embodied  in  the  proverb  that  where 
the  Osmanli  plants  his  foot  the  grass  will  not  grow. 
Nor  did  the  Turks  '  instinctively  take  to  the  sea' 
(ibid.};  they  engaged  Greek,  Dalmatian,  and  other 
Aryans  to  man  their  ships.  How  are  the  Nairs 
of  the  Malabar  coast  '  hill^tribes '  (p.  57)  ?  are  they 
confounded  with  the  Todas  of  the  Nilgiri  ?  We 

1  I  am  sorry  to  see  Mr.  Freeman  using  the  debased  form  '  Slave.' 


are  told  (p.  66)  that  'geographically,  ancient  Etruria 
is  modern  Tuscany,'  without  the  qualification  that 
there  were  two  other  sets  of  '  duodecim  populi' — 
one  to  the  south,  the  other  to  the  north-east,1  so  as 
to  embrace  nearly  the  whole  peninsula  ;  and  in  1874 
the  author  had  apparently  no  knowledge  of  the 
immense  finds  which  since  1856  have  enriched 
Bologna.  Converging  door -jambs  (p.  353)  are, 
doubtless,  Egyptian  and  Etruscan,  but  also  they 
belong  to  all  primitive  architecture,  the  object  being 
simply  to  facilitate  the  construction  of  the  lintel ; 
we  find  them  in  Palmyra,  and  we  find  them  in  the 
far  West  of  America.  I  read  (p.  66)  that  ceramic 
art  is  the  one  permanent  legacy  which  the  Etrus- 
cans have  bequeathed  to  the  world,  when  all  their 
highest  works  were  either  imitations  of  the  Greeks 
or  were  imported  from  Greece  ;  nor  have  we  a 
word  about  the  merchant-prince  Demaratus  of 
Corinth,  who  is  said  to  have  brought  the  alphabet 
to  Etruria  (Tacit.  'Ann.'  xi.  14,  and  others)  with 
the  fictores  Eucheir  and  Eugrammos  (titles,  not 
names).  The  '  passion  for  vivid  and  harmonious 

1  Dr.  Paul  Broca  (loc .  cit.)  remarks  that  Etruria  '  Media '  is  a 
purely  geographical  term,  which,  anthropologically  speaking,  should 
be  'Antiqua,'  opposed  to  'Nova'  (Circumpadana),  and  to  '  Novis- 
sima '  or  '  Opicia '  :  the  latter  is  disconnected  by  Latium,  which  was 
never  occupied  by  the  Etruscans. 


colour'  is  not  only  Turanian  (p.  65);  even  we 
English  have  received  it  in  Fair  Isle  from  Spain, 
which  received  it  from  Morocco.  '  Tracing  descent 
by  the  mother's  side'  (p.  14)  is  common  to  an 
immense  number  of  barbarous  races ;  the  Congoese 
Africans,  for  instance,  can  hardly  be  Turanian,  and 
even  the  old  Icelanders,  who  have  nothing  in  com- 
mon with  the  '  Skrselingjar,'  under  certain  circum- 
stances took  the  surer  matronymic.1  Exogamy, 
again  (p.  58),  belongs  to  a  certain  stage  of  society 
where  all  the  members  of  the  tribe  are  held  to  be 
of  one  blood,  and  where  marriage  would  be  within 
the  prohibited  degree.  We  find  it  amongst  the  East 
African  Somal,  who  will  be  Turanians  only  when 
the  Copts  are. 

It  would  be  fastidious  work  again  to  slay  the 
slain    after    the    critique    upon    the    vocabulary   of 
'Etruscan  Researches,' printed  in  the  'Athenaeum' 
of  March    28th,  1874,  by  Mr.  Wm.  Wright.     But 

1  The  case  stands  thus  :  The  Lycians  (Herod,  i.,  173)  always  traced 
their  descent,  unlike  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  through  the  maternal 
line,  and  this  has  been  verified  by  Fellows  (Lycia,  276).  The  Etrus- 
cans (Dennis,  i.,  133)  'being  less  purely  Oriental,  made  use  of  both 
methods.'  But  this  careful  author  is  hardly  justified  in  deriving  the 
custom  from  the  East  :  it  would  arise  naturally  from  the  high  position 
of  women  in  a  people  of  diviners,  augurs,  and,  perhaps,  of  mes- 
merists ;  but  we  cannot  say  that  such  dignity  is  an  Asiatic  custom. 


the  absolute  ignorance  of  all  Eastern  languages, 
and  the  unscrupulous  ingenuity  with  which  names 
of  persons  and  places  are  distorted,  require  some 
notice.  The  authority  of  MM.  Lenormant,  Sayce, 
Edkins,  and  Sir  Henry  Rawlinson  is  invoked 
('Athenaeum,'  May  2nd,  1874)  to  defend  as  Tura- 
nian or  '  Turkish '  such  familiar  Arabic  words  as 
Nasl,  Jinn,  and  Ghoul ;  but  what  of  '  li-umm ' 
(Lemures !)  meaning  simply  in  Arabic  '  to  the 
mother '  ?  The  learned  interpreter  of  Cuneiform 
must  be  charmed  with  the  role  here  assigned  to 
him.  The  name  of  Attila,  we  are  told,  is  '  of  an 
Etruscan  type,  and  can  be  explained  from  Etruscan 
sources '  (p.  75),  when  we'  find  it  even  in  the 
Scandinavo-Aryan  Atli.  '  The  name  of  the  Budii, 
a  Median  tribe,'  is  'seen  in  the  town-name  of  Buda 
in  Hungary '(p.  78);  the  latter  (tufa),  signifying 
literally  a  '  boy,'  was  the  proper  name  of  Atil  or 
Attila's  brother,  put  to  death  by  him.  The  dis- 
puted word  '  Ogre '  is  derived  '  from  the  Tartar  word 
ugry,  a  thief  (p.  376),  which  also  named  the 
'  Ugrian,'  I  should  rather  find  its  equivalent  in  the 
Hindu  agkor,  as  aghorpanthi,  the  religious  mendi- 
cant, part  of  whose  Dharma  (duty)  was  cannibalism. 
'  The  very  name  of  DARIUS,  the  Mede,  can  be 


explained  from  Finnic  sources,'  which  seem  able, 
like  a  certain  statesman,  to  explain  away  everything 
(p.  79);  but  we  trace  its  cognate  in  the  modern  Persian 
Dara.  'Tarquin'  (Tar^i)  is  Tark-Khan,  the  pru- 
dent prince  (ibid.}  ;  '  Lucumo'  (p.  322)  means  'great 
Khan,  from  hi  and  kan  (for  'khan');  and  here  we 
may  note  that  the  '  great  Cham  of  Tartary,'  which 
the  unlettered  Englishman  is  tempted  to  pronounce 
as  in  '  c/iam'-ber,  came  to  us  through  the  Italians. 
Perfunctory  enough  are  the  connection  (pp.  266-8)  of 
the  prsenomen  Vele  (an  axe-handle,  or  ful  in  Yeni- 
seian)  with  Caius  (a  cudgel,  Latin,  caja},  which 
was  Gaius ;  and  such  resemblances  as  Soracte  with 
Ser-ak-Tagh,  snow-white  mountain  (p.  346) — worse 
than  Nibly's  Pelasgic  S«>fo£-'AxT>5 — as  Ascanius  with 
Szon  Khan,  and  as  lulus  with  Eszen  Hi  (p.  374), 
ancestors  of  the  Turkomans.  Father  Tiber  (p.  330) 
hails  from  '  Teppeh-ur '  (peh  Teppeh,  hill,  Persian 
ur,  water,  Turanian  ?);  but  what  of  Varro's  Thebris 
or  Dehebris,  and  of  Thepri,  Thephri,  the  forms  given 
by  Dennis  (ii.  481)?  Who  has  attributed  the  in- 
vention of  dice  to  the  Etruscans  (p.  332)  ?  The 
derivation  of  Kiemzathrm  (p.  188),  explained,  as 
2-|-i+4+Io+i,  to  mean  twice  forty  or  eighty, 
from  the  Yeniseio-Ariner  '  kina-man-tschau-thjung,! 


is  a  masterly  waste  of  time  to  the  reader  as  well  as 
to  the  writer.  If  Juno  (p.  133)  come  from  Jomu, 
God,  we  will  take  the  liberty  of  associating  with  her 
our  old  friend  '  Mumbo  Jumbo,'  not  worshipped  in, 
the  Mountains  of  the  Moon. 

In  p.  315  the  Etruscan  '  Antai,'  the  winds,  are 
identified  with  ventus,  oivsfj.oc,  and  the  Teuton  wind, 
when  the  Sanskrit  vdta  shows  the  nasal  not  to  be 
radical.  Why  go  to  the  Ugric  ker,  or  akcr  in  Lapp, 
for  ager,  when  even  in  Scandinavian  we  have 
Akkr  (p.  333).  As  Dr.  Birch  remarks  ('Athenaeum,' 
June  20,  1874),  Mr.  Taylor  has  made  a  ' petitio 
principii  in  assuming  that  thapirnal  =  niger; 
kahatial  —  violens,  kiarthalisa  =  fuscus,  and 
vanial  —  sees  calis,  whatever  that  may  mean.'  It 
by  no  means  appears  that  the  Roman  words  in  the 
bilingual  epitaphs  were  translations  of  the  Etruscan  ; 
they  might  have  been  aliases.  '  In  fact,  kahatial 
is  translated  in  the  bilingual  inscriptions  cafatia 
natus  and  varnalisa  by  varid  natus,  not  Rnftis, 
which,  added  afterwards,  was  something  besides 
which  he  was  called,  as  an  agnomen  in  Latin, 
but  not  Etruscan.  In  p.  3 19  we  are  informed  that 
there  is  no  tenable  Aryan  etymology  for  popu7us, 
the  poplar-tree,  whence  Populonia.  Colonel  Yu7e 


('Some  Unscientific  Notes  on  the  History  of  Plants,' 
p.   49,   '  Geog.   Mag.,'     Feb.   1875)    has  shown  the 
contrary  to  be  the  case ;  like  d/mrja,  the  birch,  the 
word  accompanied  the  earliest  emigration  from  the 
East.     Popidus,    pioppo     {fioppa,    in     Bolognese), 
peuplier,    and   poplar     are  the     Sanskrit  pippala, 
the   modern  Hindu  pipal  (Ficus   religiosa),  whose 
superficial  likeness  causes  the  French  to  name  the 
Indian  fig  '  peuplier  d'Inde'  and  the  Palermo  gar- 
dener  to   baptise  it   'pioppo    delle    Indie.'     Major 
Madden  also  found  the  populus  ciliata  of  Kumaon 
called  by  the   people  '  Gar-pipal.'     Lord  Crawford 
explains   the    Etruscan    Bacchus    by  this    process 
'  Pampin=  fauTrsX  =  Phuphl   +   ans,  uns  or  ana  = 
Phuphluns,     Pupliana,    i.e.,   "  God    of    the    Vine." : 
The  existence  of  the    Huns    in   Etruscan    days  is 
proved  (pp.  76  and  367)  by  the  word  HVINS  (mirror 
engraved  by  Gerhard.   Taf.   ccxxxv.),   the  terminal 
sibilant    being     '  probably    the     Etruscan     definite 
article.'       I    suggested    ('  Athenaeum,'    March    28, 
1874)    that   the   word   might   also  be    read  HLTNS, 
(Hellenes  ?)  part  of  an  inscription  over  what  has 
generally  been  supposed  to  be  the  Trojan  Horse. 
Dr.   Birch,    however,  says    ('Athenaeum,'  June    20, 
1874)  that  it  '  may,  with  equal,  if  not  greater,  proba- 


bility,  be  referred  to  the  capture  of  Pegasus  (Pecse) 
by  Vulcan  (Sethlans),  and  to  the  Fountain  Hippo- 
krene,  or  Fons  Caballinus,  in  Etruscan  huins,  analo- 
gous to  the  Latin  fans.  He  suggests  '  Etule  Pecse 
Sethlans,'  as  equivalent  to  the  Greek  '  Edoulene 
Pegason  Hephaistos;'  but  'under  any  circumstances 
the  Huns  take  to  flight'  -Again,  it  is  evident  that  the 
inscription  '  Nusthieei '  or  '  Nusthieh'  (pp.  112-113) 
should  be  read  the  other  way,  Heithzun,  or,  probably, 
Heiasun — lason  or  Jason,  according  to  Dr.  Birch. 
The  difficulty  is  that  the  E  faces  from  left  to  right 
and  the  s  from  right  to  left. 

'  The  French  Marechal,'  a  groom  or  farrier 
(p.  267),  is  not  fairly  explained.  Our  popular 
derivation  is  from  the  Scandinavian  mara,  a  mare — 
hence  nott-mara,  a  night-mare — and  skjald,  a  ser- 
vant The  latter  has  passed  through  sundry  vicissi- 
tudes before  he  became  a  m^r-skal.  I  would,  how- 
ever, observe  that  the  Illyrian  and  other  Slavs  have 
mara  or  marra,  meaning  a  witch.  It  is  unpardon- 
able to  make  (p.  113)  historic  '  ezhdiha '  Turkish  ; 
everyone  knows  the  origin  of  this  Persian  word, 
the  old  Bactrian  and  intensely  Aryan  az-i-dahdka> 
the  biting  snake ;  the  aki,  the  midgardsorm,  the 
zohak  of  Firdausi — slain,  according  to  Zendavestan 



tradition,  by  Thraetavna  (Indra).  Curiously  enough, 
the  Illyrian  Slavs  still  retain  azdaja  (pron. 
'azhdaya')  for  a  'dragon.'  The  CAMEL,1  with  capi- 
tals (p.  151),  as  if  alluding  to  Henri  Heine's  'Great 
Camel  Question,'  is,  we  are  assured,  '  Turanian ; ' 
when  the  Semitic  jamal — pronounced,  probably,  by 
the  Jews  and  Phoenicians,  and  certainly  by  the 
modern  Bedawin,  '  gamal ' — became  the  kamel-os  of 
the  Greeks.  It  may  explain  Camillus,  but  if  so,  the 
word  is,  like  Cadmus,  Semitic.  Of  the  four  test- 
words,  '  on  which  the  whole  case  as  to  the  Ugric 
affinities  of  Etruscan  might  safely  be  rested ' 
(pp.  93-113) — kulmu  (which  Corssen  reads  culsu, 
p.  380),  vanth,  hinthial,  and  nahum — the  second  and 
third  are  interpreted  by  the  wildest  processes.  Vanth 
(thanatos  f)  relies  solely  upon  the  '  Turkish  '  fdni 
(p.  102)  and  '  vanij  ready  to  perish '  (p.  103)  ;  the 
former  being  pure  Arabic,  and  the  latter  a  corrup- 
tion of  the  active  form  fdni.  Hinthial  loses  half 
its  superficial  resemblance  to  the  Finnic  haltin  (or 
haldia,  p.  107),  'which  is,  letter  for  letter,  the  same 

1  I  regret  that  no  one  has  answered  my  questions  in  the  Athenaum 
(March,  1874)  concerning  the  Etruscan  camel,  whether  it  be  the 
Northern  (two-humped)  or  the  Southern.  And  it  is  even  more  to  be 
regretted  that  in  the  Lost  Tombs  of  Tarquinii  (Dennis,  i.,  348)  no 
notice  was  taken  of  the  elephant  being  African  or  Asiatic. 


as  the  Etruscan  word,'  when  we  compare  its  other 
form  'phinthial ' ;  nor  can  we  '  identify  '  it  (p.  109), 
with  '  the  Turkish  ghyulghe  (gyulgeJi),  a  shadow,' 
or  break  it  into  hin-thi-al,  'the  image  of  the  child 
of  the  Grave'  (p.  in).  Manitou  (p.  136)  is  cer- 
tainly not  'the  North  American  heaven  god  :  it  is 
simply  the  haltia  of  the  Finns  ;  the  phantasm  which 
resides  in  every  material  object.  To  such  informa- 
tion (p.  102),  as  'the  suffix  d<?rt(!)  in  Turkish 
commonly  denotes  abstract  nouns  '  we  can  only  reply 
'Pro-di-gious!'  The  four  Arabic  words  melekyut 
(malakiyyat,  from  malik),  munidat  (corrupted),  nejdet, 
and  neddmet,  quoted  in  support  of  this  doctrine,  end 
with  what  grammarians  call  the  Ha  el-masdar  (h  of 
abstraction).  A  man  must  be  Turan-smitten,  must 
have  caught  a  Tartar,  to  find  (p.  1 24)  that  '  the  title 
of  the  Russian  Emperor,  the  Tzar,  is  doubtless  of 
Tartaric  origin ; '  and  perhaps  he  would  say  the 
same  of  Caesar  and  Kaiser.  But,  seriously,  is  all 
history  thus  to  be  thrown  overboard  ?  And  why, 
in  the  name  of  common  sense,  should  we  compare 
the  '  Indian  Menu '  with  Mantus,  Minos,  and 
Manes'?  (p.  122).  Why,  again,  should  not  Kharun 
be  Charon,  instead  of  Kara  (black),  and  lun,  an 
abraded  form  of  aina,  a  "  spirit,  or  of  jumt  god  "  '  ? 


(p.  1 1 8).  The  derivation  (p.  160)  of  the  Etruscan 
mack  (one),1  though  '  safe  ground  to  tread  on ' 
(p.  174),  is  another  marvel.  It  proceeds  from  the 
Turkic  bar-mack,  a  finger  (tzsAparmak  or  pdrmaK], 
and  the  '  Turkish  '  (!)  mikh  lab, '  the  clawed  foot  of  a 
bird  or  animal,'  i.e.,  the  noun  of  instrument  in  Arabic 
from  the  triliteral  root  khalaba,  '  he  rent/  So  in  our 
vernacular  the  fish^/z  perhaps  comes  from  yfo-ger. 
And  yet  this  conglomerate  of  errors  is  made  to  take 
a  crucial  part  in  the  Turanian  scheme  ;  it  is  the  basis 
of  interpreting  the  '  invaluable '  (Campanari)  dice 
of  Toscanella,  now  in  the  Cabinet  des  Medailles, 
Paris,  where  words,  taking  the  place  of  pips, 
form,  according  to  some  scholars,  an  adjuration  or 
prayer,  to  others  a  name  and  a  gift.  Lord  Craw- 
ford explains  this  (bogus)  '  Rosetta  Stone '  of  Mr. 
Taylor  by  an  adjuration  which  also  contains  an  echo 
of  the  current  names  of  numerals  in  Japhetan,  if  not 
Teutonic,  speech. 

1  Curious  to  say  the  only  dialect  in  which  Mack  means  one,  is  the 
'Sim'  of  the  Gipsies  (see  '  Anthropologia,'  p.  498,  vol.  i),  probably 
derived  from  the  Greek  /uia,  whilst  '  Machun '  is  two.  Judged  by  its 
numerals,  and  by  Prof,  von  W.  Corssen's  undoubted  failure,  Etruscan 
has  no  affinity  with  any  known  tongue,  and  though  Mr.  Ellis  suspected 
a  double  system,  this  has  not  yet  been  proved. 


Mach  (i)  Thu  (2)          Zal  (3) 

(May  the)     Dice  or  ace        of  Zeus  (two)    (in)  number  (three) 

Hut  (4)  Ki  (twice)  Sa  (6) 

fall  twice  sixes. 

And  the  sprachforscher,  Prof.  Corssen  proposes  (pp. 
28,  806)  :— 

Mach  Thu-zal  Huth  Ci-Sa 

Magus          Donarium        Hoc  Cisorio  fecit. 

Mr.  Ellis  (Numerals  as  Signs  of  Primeval 
Unify,  and  Peruvia  Scythica,  p.  158)  makes  Makh 
(i),  Thu  (2,  duo  ?),  Zal  (3),  Huth  (4),  Ki  (5),  and 
Sa  (6) ;  Mr.  Taylor,  inverting  the  sequence,  Mach 
(i),  Ki  (2),  Zrt/(3),  Sa  (4),  Thu  (5),  and  Huth  (6). 
The  relics  were  found  in  1848,  and  probably  Mr. 
Taylor  is  not  answerable  for  the  '  dodge '  which, 
in  announcing  his  book,  omitted  the  date  and  left 
the  public  to  believe  that,  when  the  find  was  de- 
scribed in  1848  by  Dr.  Emilio  Braun  (p.  60,  Bull. 
Arch&ol.  Inst.  of  Rome],  and  afterwards  of  Orioli, 
Steub,  Lorenz,  Morenz,  Bunsen,  Pott,  and  others,  a 
new  '  key  to  Etruscan  '  had  lately  been  discovered. 
But  he  is  answerable  for  the  tone  of  his  reply 
('  Athenaeum,'  May  2,  1874)  to  the  '  Gentle  Lindsay' 
('Athenaeum,'  April  u,  1874) — a  painful  contrast 
with  the  courtesy  of  the  'earl's  blood.' 


Such  are  the  process  of  '  exhaustion '  or  '  elimina- 
tion ; '  the  far-fetched  '  affinities  ; '  the  broadest  con- 
clusions on  the  narrowest  of  bases  ;  the  '  curious,'  or 
rather  supposed,  '  coincidences,'  the  guess-work  of 
an  unwary  philologer ;  the  plausible  agnation  ;  the 
perverted  ingenuity — such  as  holding  ancient  nume- 
rals to  be  fragments  of  ancient  words  denoting 
members  of  the  body — and  explaining  the  stone 
circles  round  tumuli  as  the  survivals  of  tent-weights, 
which  affiliate  Etruscan  with  Altaic.  These 
'  picklocks  or  skeleton  keys '  do  not  open  the  lock 
of  the  dark  chamber,  and  the  '  secret  is  locked  with 
more  than  adamantine  power.'  The  whole  volume 
is  a  simple  confusion  of  all  scientific  etymology,  and 
its  '  abrasion-doctrine '  might  be  applied  as  profit- 
ably to  deriving  roast  beef  from  plum-pudding.  The 
'  cumulative  arguments '  which  make  the  Rasenna 
Ugrians  are  mere  sorites  of  errors  called  analogies, 
and  exactly  the  same  defects  have  been  noted  in  the 
author's  '  Words  and  Places.'  Prof.  Corssen,  perhaps 
the  profoundest  Etruscologue  of  his  age,  even 
asserted  that  of  twenty-two  numerals  which  Mr. 
Taylor  has  claimed  as  proofs  of  the  connexion  be- 
tween Etruscan  and  the  Altaic  branch  of  the  Tura- 
nian family  of  tongues,  as  many  as  eighteen  are  not 


even  Etruscan,  and,  of  the  four  remaining,  three  are 
pronouns,  and  one  is  a  proper  name.1 

Finally,  in  his  preface  (p.  vii.),  the  '  Livingstone 
of  linguists,'  as  a  certain  reviewer  entitles  him,  was 
'  conscious  of  the  shortcomings '  of  his  book  ;  in  the 
Reviews  he  fought  his  '  free  fight '  more  obstinately 
for  its  errors,  its  hallucinations,  and  its  ignorance 
than  most  men  have  fought  for  their  truths.  I  was 
not  a  little  amused  after  noticing  his  contradictions 
about  the  existence  of  Etruscan  temples  to  read 
the  diatribe  ('Athenaeum,'  June  6,  1874)  about  my 
'  utter  recklessness  in  making  groundless  accusa- 
tions.' Let  me  ask,  with  the  distinguished  Arabist 
Prof.  Wright,  quid  plura  f 

The  Family  Pen  has  never  been  employed  worse 
than  in  writing  '  Etruscan  Researches.'  Yet  by 
substituting  a  scatter  of  colonists  from  Asia  Minor, 
either  Lydian  or  Lydo- Phoenician,  for  the  pure 
Turanian,  we  may  find  in  Mr.  Taylor  a  useful 
picture  of  Etruscan  life. 

The  conclusions  which  we  draw  from  our  actual 

1  Prof.  Corssen's  numerals  are  Italian  : — Uni  (i),  Teis  (2),  Trinache 
(3),  Chvarthu  (4),  Cuinte  (5),  Sesths  (6),  Setume  (7),  Untave  (8), 
Nunas  (9),  Tesne  (10),  Tesne  eka  (u),  and  Tisnteis  (20).  Perhaps 
these  may  be  the  Italiot,  used  synchronously  with  the  Lydo-Etruscan 


state  of  knowledge  concerning  the  Etruscan  tongue 
are — i.  That  it  may  possibly  be  proved  'Italiot'; 
2.  That  its  origin  and  its  affiliation  are  at  pre- 
sent mysterious  as  the  Basque ;  3.  That,  whereas 
almost  all  previous  authorities  had  advocated  some 
form  of  the  great  Indo-European  speech,  Mr.  Taylor 
has  made  himself  a  remarkable  '  Turanian '  excep- 
tion ;  and  4.  That  certain  Finnish  '  affinities ' 
deserve  scientific  investigation. 




THE  three  great  finds,  Villanova,  the  Certosa,  and 
Marzabotto,  have  made  but  one  real  addition  to  the 
inscriptive  literature  of  the  Etruscans.  Whilst  the 
Central  and  the  Campanian  Federations  proved  rich, 
the  Circumpadan  has  shown  itself  exceptionally  poor 
in  this  point,  much  resembling  the  Phoenicians,  whom 
Prof.  Calori  assigns  to  the  Etruscans  as  ancestry. 
The  citizens  of  Sidon  and  Tyre  were  probably  great 
writers  of  ledgers,  invoices,  and  such  matters,  but 
how  few  are  the  important  epigraphs  which  they 
have  left  us  !  In  this  point  they  offer  a  curious 
contrast  with  their  immediate  neighbours,  the  Egyp- 
tians and  the  Assyrians. 

At  Villanova  no  engraved  record  was  found 
beyond  the  broad  arrow,  the  pJueon  of  heraldry, 
possibly  representing  the  letter  £  in  two  shapes — 
\J7  ('  La  Necropoli  di  Vill.,'  p.  52).  V  (ibid.  p.  56). 
As  a  maker's  mark  (?)  it  has  been  detected,  not 



only  in  the  other  two 
diggings,  but  also  at 
Adria,  Mantua,  Mo- 
dena,  and  Reggio. 

It  is  otherwise  at 
the  Certosa,  and  hap- 
pily so,  as  the  single 
important  inscription 
(see  p.  240)  is  able 
to  remove  all  doubts 
about  the  Etruscani- 
city  of  the  noble  dis- 
coveries. The  accom- 
panying illustration  is 
borrowed  from  a  fac- 
simile in  lithograph 
(plate  ix.)  by  Prof. 
Calori,  who,  after  Fa- 
bretti,  translates  it 
(p.  4) : — '  I  am  the  se- 
pulchre of  Tanaquil 
(Tankhe)  wife  ofTitul- 
lius.'  This  feminine 
name  began  to  appear 
at  Chiusi,  and  it  tho- 


roughly  establishes  the  Etruscan  character  of  Old 

Cav.  Zannoni  ('  Sugli  Scavi  della  Certosa/  pp.  2  7, 
54)  tells  us  that  a  rough  stela  showed  the  letters  IAN, 
perhaps  to  be  read,  as  at  Monte  Alcino,  from  right  to 
left,  NAI ;  a  similar  cippus  bore  the  letters  ITVand  NIM, 
the  latter  in  red  paint,  whilst  the  largest  and  most  per- 
fect specimen  of  these  noble  headstones  had  IA>|AN 
inscribed  under  the  horses'  hoofs.  The  sigli  or 
marks  upon  pottery  found  at  the  Certosa  are  about 
fifty,  and  they  have  been  sent  for  publication  to 
the  celebrated  Professor  Ariodante  Fabretti,  who 
proposes  to  publish  them  in  the  '  Aggiunta,'  or 
sequel  to  his  '  Corpus  Inscript.  Ital.  Antiq.  ^vi.' 
Many  fictiles  are  also  inscribed.  The  familiar 
KAAE  and  (HO  HAIZ  ?)  KAAOS  often  occurs  ;  it  is 
repeated  six  times  upon  the  largest  tazza,  suggest- 
ing nuptial  gifts  to  women,  or  presents  to  the 
'  beautiful  boy/ 

Cav.  Zanetti    (ibid.   p.  39)  offers   the  following 
scatter  of  sigli  (marks)  and  graffiti : — 




At  the  base  of  the  vases 



Upon    a    tazza 

rr  \ 

were    IT  -P  O  S-/A  A  O    an<^    PEVO  :    anc^  uPon  tne  kelebe   of 
the  two  quadrigcE,  one  face  shows  before  the  charioteer 

|  K          A.          ^  >   between  the  horses'  hoofs 

^       h     x  5    an(^  fronting  the  same  appear 
S         J  ^         *  •  The  other  side  offers  also 

>Q  +-         t  K 

are    0        «       fl       1^ 

0     *      v     *      n 

facing  the  charioteer 

o.      v      *     "      f 

horses'  hoofs  ^       4>       A       *t  > 
with     o  V         * 

•*•  ;    and  between  the 

|    in   front   of   them. 

The  circle,  it  will  be  remarked,  concludes  every  line.      The  following 

two  words  are  of  pure  Etruscan  type. 



upon  a  pot-cover  of  brown  clay,  and     A  \\      \f 
upon  a  red  fragment. 

The  Etruscan  alphabet  is  still  a  debated  sub- 
ject, especially  in  the  matter  of  the  two  sibilants.  Mr. 
Murray  believes  that  the  fact  of  their  being  double 
( M  and  S)  points  to  an  age  when  the  Greeks  had  not 
abandoned  the  Samech  (D)  as  well  as  the  Shin 
(tP  =  ^  or  •).  The  Etruscan  alphabet  of 
Bomarzo  (Dennis,  i.  225 ;  compare  with  the 
Pelasgic  or  archaic  Greek  graffiti ;  and  with  the 
primers  ii.  54,  and  ii.  138)  begins,  like  all  the  Semitics, 
with  Alif  (Alpha).  The  next  three  do  not  follow  the 
Hebrew  form  retained  by  the  Arabs  in  their  chro- 
nological Abjad  (A,  B,  J,  D),  and  by  the  Greeks 
with  certain  modifications.  The  three  following  are 
regular,  Hutti  (H,  Th,  the  Etruscan  and  archaic 
Greek  ©,  the  Arabic  k,  and  I  or  Y),  and  the 
L,  M,  N,  are  the  Arabic  Kalaman,  omitting  only, 
while  the  old  Greek  and  the  Lycian  (Fellows)  retain, 
the  first.  Then  Saafas  (S,  Oin  or  Ayn,  P  or  F, 
and  S=  £,  in  Hebrew  Tzaddi  y)  is  preserved  only 
in  two  Etruscan  letters  P  and  S  (M),  and  the  eighth 
word  Karashat  (K,  R,  SH,  and  T)  is  likewise 
reduced  to  R,  S  (Sh  ?  2)  and  T.  This  certainly 


suggests    that   the   second    sibilant   was    aspirated 
(=  Sh),  while  the  absence  of  O  is  distinctly  Arabic. 
At  Marzabotto,  besides  the  pottery  marks,  we 
have  the  following  three  specimens  : — 


Aurssa  (proper  name)  on  a  fibula. 

1.  Archaic   Etruscan    inscrip- 
tions ('Akius')  on  the  bottom  of  a 
clay  pot  found  at  Marzabotto. 

2.  Fragment  of  a  clay  tablet 
found    in   a    '  funereal    well '    at 


The  other  four  Bologna  inscriptions,  given  in 
the  '  Secondo  supplemento  alia  raccolta  delle  anti- 
chissime  iscrizioni  italiche  '  (per  cura  di  Ariodante 
Fabretti,  Roma  —  Torino  —  Firenze  presso  i  Fratelli 
Bocca,  Librai  di  S.  M.  1847)  are  the  following  :  — 

(No.  i  Plate.) 

circularly  inscribed  upon  the  bottom  of  a  red-clay 
pot  found  at  the  Certosa.  Velthur  is  an  Etruscan 
praenomen  in  the  inscriptions  of  Tarquinii  ;  and, 
as  the  letters  are  evidently  traced  with  the  tool 
before  the  vase  was  burnt,  it  would  appear  to  be  the 
name  of  the  maker. 

(No.  2  Plate.) 

was  forwarded,  like  the  rest,  by  Cav.  Zannoni  to 
Prof.  Fabretti  in  Dec.  1872.  It  is  inscribed  upon  a 
fragment  of  a  great  dolium,  found  on  the  Arnoaldi 
property,  near  the  Certosa  ;  the  letters  are  eight 
centimetres  long,  and  are  held  to  be  part  of  the 


name  of  the  Bolognese  artificer  at  Marzabotto, 
which  Fabretti  ('  Corp.  Inscr.  Ital.'  No.  46)  reads 
Nrus,  and  not  Umrus,  e.g. 

Mi  (sii)  ti  banyyilite  titlalus,  appeared  copied  from 
a  clay  model  in  '  Primo  suppl.'  to  the  '  Corpo  delle 
antichissime  iscrizioni  italiche,'  p.  2,  note  i.  ;  then 
reduced  to  one-third  natural  size  in  the  '  Atti  della 
R.  Accademia  delle  Scienze,'  vii.  894,  and  lastly 
lithographed  in  the  second  supplement  (plate  No.  3). 
It  is  remarkable  for  the  squared  form  of  the  A.1 


Ml  MV^Q  A  5|  M  1  3  =  Veipi  Kanmmis, 

is  inscribed  above  the  two  human  figures,  feminine 
on  the  right  and  masculine  to  the  left,  upon  a  great 
sepulchral  stela  from  the  Scavi  Arnoaldi.  Evidently 
the  sculptor  had  no  space  for  the  letter  1  (V),  as 
if  he  had  begun  from  left  to  right,  whereas  the 
reading  is  the  reverse.  Here  we  may  understand 
Vibia,  Carmonii  ^lxor. 

1  The  facsimile  is  given  in  page  228. 



is  inscribed  on  a  figured  ^/^  at  the  Certosa  cemetery. 
The  upper  line,  which  contained  some  twenty  letters 
cut  into  a  band,  is  much  injured  ;  the  lower,  which 
separates  the  two  human  figures,  is  read  easily 
enough.  '  Luchma,'  probably  an  archaic  form,  like 
Luchumes  and  Lucumu,  is  not  without  interest  to 
those  who  study  the  relations  between  Upper  and 
Central  Etruria,  which  are  daily  developing  them- 
selves. The  final  syllable  V>/  (hi)  recalls  to  mind 
the  prsnomen  V-4/Vy  (Luchii)  read  upon  a  fictile 
urn  at  Chiusi  ('  Corp.  Inscr.  Ital.,'  No.  597  bis  r). 




THE  contadinesca  favella  Bolognese  is  little  known 
in  England,  where  Goldoni  has  made  the  witty 
Venetian  dialect  tolerably  familiar.  Mr.  Greville 
('  Memoirs/  i.  404)  simply  remarks  that  '  the  dialect 
is  unintelligible,'  whilst  Mezzofanti  assured  him  that 
it  is  '  forcible  and  expressive.'  These  local  families, 
which  are  numerous  throughout  the  peninsula,  may 
hardly  be  compared  with  those  of  our  counties, 
even  with  the  difference  of  cultivation ;  they  are 
rather  what  the  speech  of  Holland  is  to  that  of 
Germany.  Whilst  we  have,  or  rather  had  till  late 
years,  little,  if  any,  written  monuments,  the  Italian 
variants  are  rich  in  local  literature.  For  example, 
the  only  book  familiar  to  our  forefathers  of  what  the 
Gipsies  now  call  the  Peero-dillin-tem,  foot-giving, 
that  is,  'purring '  or  kicking  county,  and  known  to  the 
great  conversational  linguist  of  Bologna  was  '  Thomas 
and  Mary.'  This  generation  has  done  much  in  cul- 


rivaling  the  rustic  muse ;  yet  the  detached  private 
publications,  as  opposed  to  those  printed  by  the 
English  Dialect  Society  and  other  learned  bodies, 
are  generally  confined  to  their  own  parts,  or,  at 
most,  to  the  curious  in  philology. 

The  fact  of  the  Italian  favelle  being  literary 
and  not  analphabetic,  containing  dictionaries  and 
classical  poems,  may  account,  to  a  certain  extent, 
for  their  universal  use  even  in  educated  and  culti- 
vated society.  At  home  we  should  marvel  to  hear 
a  dinner-party  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  suddenly 
lapse  into  the  broadest  Yorkshire  or  Somersetshire, 
and  it  is  only  an  occasional  '  original '  who  persists 
in  retaining  his  or  her  country  brogue.  In  Italy 
the  resident  stranger  is  accustomed  to  the  appear- 
ance of  the  local  dialect  whenever  the  company 
becomes  excited  or  confidential,  and  he  generally 
has  the  sense  to  learn  it,  as  otherwise  he  would  be 
utterly  unintelligible  to  the  peasantry,  and  partly  so 
to  the  lower  order  of  citizens. 

Italians,  who  hold  to  '  Italia  una'  as  the  first 
article  of  faith,  consider  the  diversitas  linguarum  to 
be  non  academica  sed  vere  Babylonica,  and  denounce 
the  practice  as  an  unmitigated  evil.  I  am  disposed, 
despite  all  sentiment,  to  agree  with  them.  Differ- 

R  2 


ence  of  dialect  tends  to  maintain  a  species  of  bi- 
lingualism,  and  history  tells  us  that  bi-lingual  peoples 
have  done  next  to  nothing  in  literature,  and  very 
little  in  anything  else.  Sometimes  a  genius,  like 
Milton,  may  write  in  Latin  and  Italian  as  well  as  in 
English  ;  a  Camoens  may  poetise  in  Portuguese  and 
Spanish,  or  a  Swinburne  may  be  equally  happy  in 
French  and  English.  These  are  rare  exceptions — 
brains  big  enough  to  contain  two  and  even  three 
tongues.  But  the  multitude  has  enough  and  more 
than  enough  to  do  with  mastering  one.  It  is  not 
only  race  that  has  prevented  Wales  from  producing 
a  single  writer,  in  verse  or  in  prose,  whose  name  has 
become  a  household  word  to  the  world  ;  and  senti- 
mentalists who,  like  Mr.  Gladstone,  advocate  the 
Eisteddfod,  offer,  methinks,  the  worst  advice  of 
their  unreal  and  aesthetic  school.  The  cultivation  of 
local  dialects  is  the  strongest  engine  for  maintaining 
those  racial  distinctions  which  the  whole  course  of 
modern  civilisation  does  its  best  to  obliterate  :  the 
worst  symptom  in  Jewish  progress  is  their  being 
constantly  reminded  of  the  words  of  Moses,  '  sepa- 
rated for  ever  from  all  the  people  on  the  face  of  the 
earth.'  Such  a  study  was  well  for  that  divided  land, 
that  mere  '  geographical  expression '  in  which  the 


first  Lord  Lytton  ('  Last  Days  of  Pompeii')  found 
'  the  only  hope  of  Italy.'  How  potent  the  instrument 
may  be  found  in  political  warfare,  in  alienating  man 
from  man  may  be  seen  in  the  battle  of  races'  at 
Trieste.  The  Italianissimi  party,  opposed  to  the 
Tedeschi  and  the  Pan-Slavic,  carefully  supports  half- 
a-dozen  weeklies  or  flying-sheets  written  in  the  cor- 
rupt Venetian,  dashed  with  a  few  words  of  Friuiano,1 
which  distinguishes  the  city  of  Charles  VI.  and  Maria 
Theresa.  Here  we  had  or  have,  to  mention  only 
a  few,  '  La  Baba '  (the  grandmother)  which  first 
appeared  ;  'El  Portinajo ' ;  'El  Poveretto ' ;  'El 
Rusignol '  (the  nightingale),  which  ceased  to  sing 
in  1873  ;  and  '  El  Ciabiatin'  (the  cobbler,  who  also 
acts  as  house-porter),  which  has  lately  become  '  El 
Triestin.'  Its  rival  is  at  present  the  '  Gazzettino 
del  Popolo.' 2 

1  The  borrowing  from   Friuiano  is  mostly  of   words.      For  this 
dialect  the    curious  reader  will  consult  the  Poesiis  de  Fieri  Zorntt 
(Pietro  Zorutti),  published  at  Udine.     Some  of  the  poems  are  much 
admired  and  deserve  translation  :  an  especial  favourite  is  the  Ana- 
creontic beginning 

'  Piovesine,  fine,  fine.' 

2  I  know  only  two  books  of  proverbs  in  the  Triestine  dialect  :  i. 
Dialoghi  Piacevoli  of  the  (Canonico)  D.  Giuseppe  Mainati,  with  map 
and  letters  of  Mgr.  Bonomo,  which  begin  with  the  :6th  century  (1511), 
the   whole    translated    into    Italian   (Trieste,  G.   Marenigh,   1828)  ; 
and  2.  Sa^gio  di  Proverbi  Triestini,  by  Angelo  C.  Cassani  (Trieste, 
Colombo  Coen,  1860). 


The  '  Bulgnes  '  is  one  of  the  rudest  of  its  kind,  so 
'  tronco  e  mozzato/  (truncated  and  elided),  that  at  first 
strangers,  familiar  with  Italian,  can  hardly  understand 
a  word  of  it,  especially  when  spoken  '  stretto.'  For 
instance  :  'A  n'  vuoi  t'  m'  in  parl,  S'gnor  '  or  '  M'sier  ' 
(I  won't  have  you  speak  to  me  about  it,  Sir)  rapidly 
pronounced,  sounds  almost  like  one  word.  Again,  'Ai 
me  ne  seng  meng  brisa  (io  non  ne  so  mica ')  with  a 
double  negative,  in  Italian  an  affirmative;  and,  lastly, 
to  die  is  not  morire,  but  '  andar  in  squezz '  (to  go 
squash  or  in  dissolution).  Yet  it  has  its  classics,  such 
as  the  works  of  Dr.  Lotto  Lotti,  which  run  through 
a  multitude  of  editions  ;  nor  are  collections  of  local 
poetry  disdained  by  the  learned  of  the  present  day. 
In  the  list  of  modern  M.A.'s  and  Professors  at 
'  Blogna,'  or  '  Bulogna,'  I  see  that  the  Senator 
Conte  Commendatore  Carlo  Pepoli  published  a 
'  Discorso  Academico '  upon  the  patriotic  subject '  Di 
taluni  canti  dei  Popoli.'  The  Professor  of  Italian 
Literature,  Cav.  Giosue  Carducci,  has  also  printed,  in 
periodicals,  specimens  '  Di  alcune  poesie  popolari 
Bolognesi  del  Secolo  xm.  inedite '  (Bologna,  1866), 
and  '  Di  alcune  rime  antiche  ritrovate  nei  memoriali 
dell'Archivio  notarile  di  Bologna'  (Bologna,  1872-73). 
There  is  a  large  quarto  vocabulario,  or  dictionary  of 


Bolognese-Italian,  and  Italian-Bolognese,  by  Claudio 
Ermanno  Ferrari  (publisher,  Nicola  Zanichelli, 
Bologna,  1858  ;  price  4  lire).  My  kind  friend  Prof. 
Gian  Giuseppe  Bianconi  gave  me  three  volumes, 
whose  contents  may  not  be  uninteresting  to  the 
general  reader. 

The  oldest  is  a  rude  little  duodecimo  of  158 
pages,  entitled  '  La  Togna,  Commedia  Rusticale, 
tradotta  (it  was  originally  in  the  Florentine  dialect) 
dal  timido  Accademico  dubbioso,  recitata  nella  Villa 
di  Fossolo,  e  dedicata  all'  illustriss.  Signora,  la 
Signora  Alexandra  Bianchetti,  Gambalunga,  ne' 
Zaniboni.  Con  Privilegio.  In  Bologna,  per  Giacomo 
Monti,  MDCLIV.  Con  licenza  de'  superiori.'  The 
imprimatur  appears  at  the  end,  signed  by  the 
'  Archiep.  Bonon.  &  Principe,'  and  by  two  members 
of  the  4  Inquisitionis  Bononiae.'  The  two  opening 
sonnets,  '  Felsina  alia  Togna,'  and  '  Sunnett  fatt  pr 
Caprizzi,  in  lod  d'  la  Togna,'  will  give  the  measure  of 
elision  and  truncation  ;  for  instance,  in  these  lines — 

E  s'  in  Fiurenza  cun  fadigh,  e  spes  (fatigue  and  expense) 

Fu  zk  mustra  la  gloria  dal  to  inzegn, 

Qui  in  Bulogna,  und  i  Studi  ban  al  so  Regn 

Thara  gloria  mazor,  e  piu  pales  (more  evident), 

we  may  remark  that  the  pronouns  me  or  mi;  ti,  lu, 
nit,  vie,  and  lori  or  ei  are  used  everywhere  between 


Dalmatia  and  Bologna.  Mi  is  remarkable  for 
occurring  in  so  many  different  and  far-divided 
languages  ;  for  instance,  in  Slav  and  Teutonic,  where 
mic/i  is  older  than  ich.  The  Bolognese  use  A  or 
ai  for  the  first  person,  only  where  it  would  be  em- 
phatic. The  elision  of  the  last  syllable  in  the  noun 
(inedgh  for  medico],  in  the  infinitive  (guardd  for 
guardare),  and  in  the  participle  (battu  for  dattuto) 
is  similar  on  both  sides  of  the  Adriatic.  We  have 
also  the  same  omission  of  the  liquids,  as  in  cavai 
for  cavalli,  and  maraveia  for  maraviglia. 

The  country  girl  La  Togna  (Antonia),  daughter 
of  Barba  (Gaffer)  Bigh  (Biagio,  Giles),  is  loved 
by  Minghett  d'Greguor,  and  she  loves  Sandrin,  whilst 
she,  or  rather  her  father,  is  proposed  to  by  Petronio.1 
The  latter  is  a  zdatin  (citizen),  speaking,  of  course, 
pure  Italian,  and  compelled  by  the  master  passion 
to  forget  his  morgue  of  the  i  yth  century.  Yet  he 
cannot  help  quoting  (p.  108) — 

Allo  sprone  i  Caualli,  al  fischio  i  Cani 
Ed  al  bastone  intendono  i  Villani. 

The  contrast  of  the  dialects  leads,  in  the  unsmooth 

1  The  name  is  intensely  Etruscan,  as  we  learn  from  the  tombs  of 
the  Petruni  family  at  Perugia.  La  Togna  in  the  fisherman's  dialect  of 
Trieste  would  mean  '  a  float.' 


course   of  courtship,  to  such  quid  pro  quo   as  the 
following  (p.  36)  : — 

Petr. — Non  vedi,  come  per  te  languisco  ? 

Togna. — Mo,  ch'  vien  a  dir  languiss?   D'  gli  anguill  ?  (eels  ?) 

Petr. — N6,  vuol  dir  ch'  io  moro  ! 

Togna. — Un  Mor  (Moor)  blanch',  6  negr  ? 

Another  zintilhuomin>  also  a  citizen  pour  rire,  is 
Cintio  Musico,  who  writes  songs  for  his  friend ;  and 
the  valet  Malgaratin,  the  'seruitore  del  cio  di  Petronio.' 
There  are  two  ridiculous  old  women,  Ze  Drathie 
(Aunt  or  Gammer  Dorothy),  and  Ze  Betta  (Elizabeth), 
who  recite  '  sympathetic  verses '  when  La  Togna 
faints  under  her  troubles.  After  the  usual  peripetia 
of  love  and  cross-love,  caused  by  the  '  Diaul  dl' 
Infern,'  the  conclusion  is  happy.  Petronio  is  for- 
bidden by  his  family  to  wed  a  rustic  :  Minghett, 
after  attempting  suicide,  consoles  himself  with  Flippa, 
whose  '  Padr '  or  '  Par '  is  Barba  Pasqual.  There  is 
a  general  song  and  dance  lasting  through  six  pages, 
and  Sandrin  dismisses  the  audience  before  living 
happily  with  La  Togna  ever  after.  Here,  evi- 
dently, we  have  a  pre-shadowing  of  Goldoni  in 
Florentine  and  Bulgnes,  instead  of  in  Venetian. 

The  next  is  a  more  ambitious  production,  and 
Professor  Bianconi  considers  it  the  most  correct 
in  point  of  orthography — a  trifle  which,  as  in 


Milton's  day,  has  hardly  been  placed  upon  a  settled 
basis.  It  is  entitled  'La  Liberazione  di  Vienna 
assediata  dalle  armi  Ottomane,  Poemetto  giocoso  ; 
e  la  Banzuola,  dialoghi  sei,  del  Dottore  Lotto  Lotti, 
in  lingua  popolare  Bolognese'  (no  date  but  1746 
in  the  last  plate),  We  gather  from  the  preface 
that  the  work  of  this  citizen,  '  a  good  Catholic,' 
has  often  been  reprinted,  despite  the  poetical  licence 
of  certain  sentiments.  It  is  an  old-fashioned  octavo 
of  248  pages,  with  12  copper-plates,  including  a 
burlesque  frontispiece,  where  Fame  flogs  a  kicking 
Pegasus  :  the  illustrations  are  curious  enough  for 
the  costumes  and  views  of  the  city  in  the  last 
century.  The  dialect  is  mixed  :  in  those  days 
there  were  various  phrases,  pronunciation,  accent, 
and  proverbial  sayings  in  the  several  quarters  of 
the  city,  especially  in  those  which,  being  nearest  to, 
had  most  intercourse  with,  Romagna,  Lombardy, 
and  Tuscany.  Moreover,  the  filatoglieri  (silk- 
workers)  had  their  own  variety.  Similarly  we  find 
at  Venice  two  distinct  dialects,  one  in  the  Cana- 
vecchio  (Old  Canal)  to  the  north  ;  the  other  in  that 
peculiar  region  the  Castello,  south  :  the  same  is  the 
case  even  in  Rome,  where  the  Trasteverini  do  not 
speak  like  their  eastern  fellow-citizens. 


The  first  part  (pp.  1-88)  is  entitled  in  Bolognese 
'  Ch'  n'  ha  cervell  ava  gamb '  (who  hath  no  brains 
has  legs),  '  o  sia  La  Liberazione  di  Vienna.'  It  is 
preceded  by  the  normal  sonnet  '  Dal  Sgnor  Duttor 
Jacm'  Antoni  Buzzichell,'  which  ends  thus  : — 

Dla  to  penna  mi  ammir  la  gran  furtuna 

Ch'  sa  in  t'  un  medesm  temp,  grav  e  burlesca, 
E  battr  sod  (to  hit  hard),  e  andar  sbactand  la  LUNA  (to 
chaff  the  moon,  i.e.  the  Crescent.) 

The  poemetto,  relating  the  attack  of  Sulayman 
the  Magnificent  with  his  300,000  men,  is  divided 
into  five  cantos,  each  preceded  by  its  argument ; 
and  the  following  is  a  specimen  of  the  first  stanza, 
which  opens  like  Ariosto  : — 

A  cant  la  stizza,  al  fugh,  gl'  arm,  e  la  rabbia 

D'  qlor  ch'  in  t'  al  nostr  vlen  cazzar  i  pj, 

D'  qla  zent  qsi  dsprpusta,  ch'  sempr  s'arrabbia  : 

0  pr  dir  mii  d'  qla  maledetta  znj 

Ch'  aveva  fatt  pinsir  d'  grattarz  la  scabbia 
Ben  ch'  a  n'  aven'  scador,  prch'  Damndj 
Ch'  e  sempr  in  nostr  ajut,  e  in  nostra  dfsesa, 

1  ammurto  la  candela  ch'  era  impresa.1 

1  I  sing  the  wrath,  the  fire,  the  arms,  and  the  rage 
Of  those  who  would  thrust  their  feet  into  our  country, 
Of  that  folk  so  inconsequent,  which  is  always  in  a  fury  : 
Or,  better  to  say,  of  that  accursed  brood 
Which  had  thought  to  have  scratched  its  itching, 
Although  without  much  chance,  for  the  Lord  (Dominiddio) 
Who  is  ever  in  our  aid  and  our  defence, 
Put  out  the  candle  which  they  had  lit. 


In  stanza  4  of  the  same  canto  we  have  an 
expression  which  has  lately  been  made  world- 
famous  by  Prince  Bismarck  : 

E  ch'  la  s'  ave  da  frizr  in  t'  al  so  grass.1 

The  first  canto  marshals  the  Christian  and  the 
infidel  forces,  including  '  Mustafa  prim  Visir,'  the 
'  Bassas '  of  various  places — Mesuputamia,  Bosnia, 
Damasc,  and  Alepp — Msir  Agha  of  the  Gianizr,  and 
others.  In  the  second  there  is  a  dialogue  between 
the  Devil  (Diavl  or  Belzebu),  the  Re  Pluton,  and 
Povr  Macumett,  who  is  called  to  relate  in  presence 
of  '  1'  Deita  ch'  assistn  ai  argumint '  why  the 
Turk  attacks  Leopold  Imperator.  Mohammed  is 
opposed  by  a  certain  '  Squizimbraga,  un  duttor' — 
the  doctor,  professor,  or  savant  is,  of  course,  a 
favourite  gibe  with  the  town  versus  gown,  and 
the  historic  '  duttour  Balanzon/  who  was  a  real 
personage  of  that  name,  still  appears  at  every 
carnival.  Macumett  so  pleases  Pluto  that  he 
receives  as  a  gift  '  una  furca  antigh,  antigh.'  In 
Canto  3  we  have  the  siege  and  the  sufferings  of 
'  i  puvr  Chstian ' ;  the  4th  shows  the  relieving 
army  of  Sobieski  (1683)  guided  by  '  Gabriell  Anzlin 

1  And  which  had  to  fry  in  its  own  grease. 


Bndett'  appearing  in  '  s'  la  muntagna  d'  Kalem- 
bergh,'  and  putting  the  Ottomans  to  flight.  The 
1  Quint  Cant '  sings  the  triumph  of  the  Christians. 

E  i  Bulgnis  al  so  solit  in  dardella 
Con  al  fugh  portn'  al  cil  1'  ovra  si  bella.1 

The  'loot'  is  also  carefully  enumerated.  The 
pocmetto  has  its  merits,  but  it  can  hardly  com- 
pare with  the  '  Rape  of  the  Tub,'  by  Tassoni, 
whom  Dickens  ('  Italian  Notes ')  confounded  with 
Tasso.  '  La  Secchia  Rapita  '  proposed  for  itself  the 
patriotic  task  of  ridiculing  petty  feuds  about 
nothing  between  neighbouring  cities;  and  its 
admirable  wit,  intermingled  with  charming  poetical 
descriptions,  found  a  worthy  echo  in  some  of 
Byron's  latest  masterpieces. 

The  second  part  (pp.  93-248)  is  entitled 
'  Remedi  per  la  Sonn,  da  lezr  alia  Banzola,2  Dialogh 
S j  '  ('  cures  for  sleep,  to  be  read  on  the  bench  or  foot- 
stool, 6  dialogues ').  It  is  addressed  '  Alle  Oneste 
Cittadine  di  Bologna,'  by  the  'Vecchietto,'  Lotto 
Lotti,  who  quotes  for  their  benefit  '  Marc'  Aurelio's ' 

1  And  the  Bolognese,  after  their  fashion,  in  great  excitement 

By  their  fiery  valour  raise  their  noble  work  to  the  sky. 
2  The  banzuola  or  banzola  is  quite  Bolognese,   and  corresponds 
with  the  scamnum  or  low  stool  of  the  Romans  ;  it  is  also  used  for  a 


saying :  '  The  retired  life  of  women  bridles  the 
tongues  of  men.'  The  author  was  induced  to  collect 
the  various  '  bizzarie '  of  sentiment,  sayings,  and  pro- 
verbs, by  the  example  of  Signor  Carlo  Maria  Mazzi, 
who  published  learned  and  amusing  comedies  in  the 
Milanese  dialect.  All  the  dialogues  are  in  irregular 
verse,  rhymed  and  unrhymed ;  the  persons,  men  and 
women,  vary  from  two  to  six.  They  have  also  their 
'  moral '  :  No.  I.,  '  Al  Servitor,'  teaches  to  distrust 
servants  who  are  apt  to  chatter  about  the  secrets  of 
the  house.  No.  II.,  '  Gropp,'  e  macchia1  is  a  warn- 
ing against  gadding  about.  No.  III.,  '  La Cantatriz,' 
encourages  mothers  to  teach  their  daughters  music 
and  singing,  but  warns  them  against  the  cupidity  of 
husbands  who  would  make  their  children  profes- 
sionals. The  music  lesson  (p.  159)  is  good  : — 

Cricca  (the  '  Mestr '). — Ossu,  sgnora,  ch'  la  vigna 
Za  dsen  su  :  fa,  fa. 

Sandrina  (Alessandrina,  the  pupil)  sings  : — 

L>  empio  oggetto  da  me  abborito 
Trovi  scherno,  e  non  pieta  ! 

Cricca.— O  vj  su  alligrament. 

Trovi  sche-e-e-e, 
Sandrina. — E-e-e-e  non  pieta. 
Cricca. — Pieta,  sol,  db. 

1  '  Far  gropp'  e  maccia '  (not  '  macchia  '),  i.e. '  to  do  knot  and  stain,' 
is  still  a  saying  at  Trieste  when  a  man  finishes  off  a  business  at 


No.  IV.  dialogue,  '  La  Miseria,'  bids  the  gude- 
wife  save  money  against  a  rainy  day,  as  hus- 
bands often  go  to  ruin.  '  Al  Bagord '  (Le 
Noceur],  No.  V.,  illustrates  the  saying  of  '  Dione 
Filosofo,'  that  'la  Donna  civile  non  solo  dev' 
essere  onesta,  ma  non  deve  dar  cagione  alcuna,  che 
in  lei  si  sospetti  mai  cosa  disonesta ' — familiar  to 
England  through  'Caesar's  wife.'  No.  VI.  and  last 
is  '  L'  ippucondria,'  in  which  the  wife  is  taught  how 
to  treat  a  hypochondriac  husband  :  '  Scannacapon 
ammala '  is  relieved  by  the  contrivances  of  '  Buni- 
fazia,  so  mujer'  and  Mado  Pira,  the  servant-woman, 
rather  than  by  the  medgh  (medico)  and  spzial 
('pothecary).  '  Finis '  is  preceded  immediately  by — 

Pira.         1 

Scann.       I     Baslaman  a  Sgnerj. 

Bunif.        J 

The  author  has  succeeded  in  fulfilling  the  diffi- 
cult promise  of  his  preface  (p.  96).  '  In  tale  imi- 
tazione  pero  ho  proccurato,  per  quanto  ho  potuto,  di 
scansare  certi  equivoci  sporchi,  ed  indecenti  di  parole, 
che  la  favella  Bolognese  suol  partorire,  perche,  tolti 
da  voi '  (to  the  citizenesses),  '  verrei  ad  offendere  la 
vostra  modestia,  ed  a  svegliarvi  quella  verecondia, 
che  sul  vostro  volto  e  la  Rocca  della  vostra 


The  third  is  a  little  octavo  of  96  pages,  '  Poesi 
in  Dialett  Bulgneis  D'  Camell  Nunzi  :'  Bulogna, 
Stampari  Militar,  1874.  It  consists  of  sonnets,  of 
various  pieces,  epigrams,  &c.,  and,  finally,  of  the  say- 
ings of  Ze-Rudell.  Of  the  sonnets,  the  most 
amusing  are  the  '  Matrimoni  ed  lusfett  con  la 
Rusali '  and  the  '  Pensir  ed  lusfett  per  la  nascita 
d'  un  fiol  d'  zeinqu  mis.'  The  unfortunate  '  Balanzon  ' 
also  appears  on  two  occasions,  '  Pr'  una  strenna 
del  Duttour  Balanzon,'  and  '  Dscours  fatt  pr'  al 
Duttour  Balanzon.'  Ze  Rudell  discourses  on 
various  themes,  such  as  '  in  Lod  dla  Puleint '  (in  praise 
of  polenta,  or  porridge)  ;  '  in  Mort  d'  un  Toe ' 
(tacchino,  or  turkey)  ;  '  in  Mort  d'  un  Oca/  and  on 
the  '  Manira  d'  cunzar  1'insala '  (to  prepare  a  salad). 
The  third  (p.  58)  begins  with — 

Dies  ires,  dies  ilia. 

L'Oca  e  morta  e  piu  non  strilla 
S'  find  1'  oli  in  dla  luzerna, 
Pace  a  lei,  requiem  eterna  ! 1 

In  a  rhyme  (p.  61),  addressed  'all'  Illustrissem 
SgnorCommendatourProfessour  Franzesc  Rizzol/we 
find  the  following  sharp  political  allusions  (1866)  : — 

1  The  goose  is  dead  and  no  more  hisses, 
Ended  the  oil  in  its  lantern, 
Peace  to  its  manes,  requiem  eternal  ! 


Arcurdav  (he  perceived)  ch'  fra  i  amala  (sick) 
Che  P  Italia  ha  un  mal  in  dl'  uter, 

Ch'  1'  an  s'andass  mai  a 

Mo  sperain  ch'  1'  ha  nnira" 

E  d'  sta  pesta  guarird  (will  be  cured  of  this  evil), 
Tolt  da  R6mma  al  mal  Franzeis  (Morbus  Gallicum) 
L'  amala'  1'  sintrd  mane  peis.    (will  not  feel  the  worse). 

The  following  is  a  specimen  of  the  epigrams 
(p.  27)  :- 

Un  Muntanar  mandd  a  Bulogna  un  fiol  (figliuolo), 

Per  cavari  un  Duttour,  mo  1'  impar6  (but  he  learned) 

Dop  zeinqu  ann,  che  lii  fava  al  lardarol :  (that  he  was  a  charcutier] 

Non  ostant  con  al  teimp,  al  s'  rassegno, 

Digand  (saying),  '  le  mei  (better)  ch'  al  seppa  frd  i  salam  (salami) 

Che  un  Asen  (asino)  frd  i  Duttur  ch'  as'  mor  ed  fam.' 

In  these  extracts  from  the  'Rem  Bulgneisi '  it 
would  appear  that  the  modern  dialect  is  growing 
broader,  with  more  of  the  sing  -  song.  For  in- 
stance, '  duttour,'  with  emphasis  on  the  penultimate 
vowel,  takes  the  place  of  '  duttor '  ;  ;  ztadein '  of 
'  ztadin  ; '  '  Bulogna '  of  '  Blogna ; '  and  so  forth.  The 
same  is  noticeable  in  the  prose  ;  for  instance,  in  the 
first  sentences  of  the  preface :  '  Tutt  i  liber  del 
mond  hann  una  prefazion,'  e  la  vrev  (vorrei.)  aveir 
anca  me.  Le  bein  veira  ch'  an  (that  I  do  not) 
so  da  ch'  banda  em  prinzipiar'  (on  what  side  to 
begin).  '  A  diro  che  la  prefazion  la  fa  1'effett 
del  Wermutt,  dl'  asseinzi,  dl'  amaron  e  dl'  antipast 
premma  del  dsnar  (before  dinner),  ch'  i  preparen 


al    stamg  (stomach)  a  dar  una  bona  magna '  (good 

My  kind  friend,  Dr.  Bianconi,  further  obliged 
me  with  the  following  '  Detti  popolari  in  dialett 
Bolognese ' : — 

1 .  '  La  piu  trista  roda  del  car  (carro)  1'  e  quella 
qu'  zirla'  (strida) — said  of  the  bad  workman  who 
complains  of  his  tools,  of  much  cry  and  little  wool, 
and  of  the  noisy  and  pushing  mediocrity. 

2.  '  L'  e  sempre  mei  (meglio)  rusgar  (rossichiare, 
to   gnaw)    un   os    (osso)    che   un   baston.'     So  the 
Triestines   say :    '  Meyo    rosigar    un    osso    che   un 

3.  '  Quel  sgnor  1'  a  fatt  tant  armesa  (armaggio, 
or  preparations),  e  po  al  s'  en  anda  con  el  piv  in 
tal  sac.'     So  the   Triestines,  who   must  be  visited 
in  the  highly  Conservative  quarter  called  La  'Rena 
(from  the  Roman  arena  or  amphitheatre),  have  it : 
'  Se  n'  andato   colle  pive   in   sacco.'     The  piva  is 
the  bag,  the  zampogna  is  the  pipe,  of  the  bag-pipe, 
and  when  the  former   is  not  distended,   the  latter 
sinks  into  it.     The  meaning  is  our  popular  saying 
'  he  shut  up.' 

4.  '  An  s'  i  p6  diri  una  parola  ch'  el  salta  a  la 
grand  '  (alia  granata,  that  is  in  furore,  or  si  stizza}. 


Trieste  prefers  '  Che  ghe  (gli)  vegna  (venga)  la  mosc' 
al  naso '  (the  fly  to  his  nose) — said  of  a  man  who 
has  a  peppery  temper. 

5.  '  Fiol  car  (figlio  caro)  quand  a'  s'  vol  combinar 
un'  affair,  b'sogna  dar  un  colp  a  la  bott  (a  blow  to 
the  barrel)  e  un  alter  al  sere '  (al  cerchio,  to  the  hoop) 
— a  cooper's  metaphor  for  '  age  quod  agis.' 

6.  '  Eh  !  la  sra  abilita  anch  questa,  d'  mudar  el 
rason  cmod  s'  fa  al  bisacc '  (bisaccia,  scrip  or  satchel). 
This  vulgar  saying  means  that  a  man  should  be  able 
to  change  his  intentions  as  easily  as  he  carries  or 
deposes  his  (travelling)  bag. 

7.  '  Avedi   pazienzia  (abbiate   pazienza) :  al  ien 
beli  rason  (they  are  good  reasons),  ma  non  caven  un 
ragn    (ragno,    a  spider)    d'in  t'un   bus '    (dal  buco). 
The  Triestine  form  is   '  Nol  caveria  una  maladeta 

(i.e.,  cosa,    not  worth  a  d )   dal  muro  :    so  the 

latter,  who  make  no  difference  between  singular  and 
plural  verbs,  say — 

E  anche  questi  ve  dig5  in  confienza  (confidence) 

No  i  gaveva  (essi  non  avevano)  studia  una  maladeta. 

8.  '  Lu  al  dsior  mei  (parla  meglio)  qu'  un  liber 
stiazza '  (stracciato,  lacero}.     This  'chaff'  to  a  man 
who  talks  like  a  (torn)  book  becomes  in  Triestino 
'  Lu  (or  el)  parla  meyo  de  un  libro  strazza, 

S  2 


9.  '  Al  s'  1'  e  giccia  (egli  se  1'  e  gettata)  dri  dal  spal 
(dietro  le  spalle)  e  bona  nott ;'  in  Trieste,  '  El  se  lo  ga 
butta  drio  le  spalle,  e  buona  notte,  Siori ! '  (Signori)  ; 
applied  to  a  man  who  gets  rid  of  a  business. 

10.  'Cos'  e  mai  sta  pladour  (rumore)  b  a  fai  ? ' 
(What's  the  meaning  of  all  this  row  ?)  The  Triestines 
say  :  '  Cossa  xe  'sto  baccan  (i.e.,  baccanale)  che  fe  ? ' 
In   the   terminal    nunnation    the  stranger  must  be 
careful  to  pronounce  the  third  liquid  rather  after  the 
French  nasal  fashion  (bombon),  than  the  Italian  and 
English  (man)  :  it  most  approaches  the  Spanish. 

11.  '  An  basta  aver  rason,  b'sogna  trauer  chi  v'la 
daga  ' ;  in  Trieste,  '  No  basta  aver  razon,  mabisogna 
trovar  chi  vi  la  daga  ' — it's  not  enough  to  be  in  the 
right,  you  must  find  people  to  believe  it. 

Since  my  last  visit  to  Bologna  Prof.  Bianconi 
informs  me  that  he  has  found  one  of  the  greatest 
rarities  produced  by  Bolognese  typography  of  the 
fifteenth  century ;  it  is  one  of  the  two  only  copies, 
the  other  being  in  Rome.  The  subject  of  the  poem 
is  the  jousting,  or  tournament,1  held  at  the  venerable 

1  From  the  '  Trattato  sopra  le  Gioste  ed  i  Tornei  del  Senatore 
Berlingiero  Sessi,'  printed  in  the  volume  containing  the  '  Prosi  degli 
Accademici  gelati'  (Manolessi,  Bologna,  1671),  we  learn  that  the  first 
tournament  known  in  Italy  took  place  at  the  old  Etruscan  capital  in 
A.D.  1147. 


city  on  October  4,  A.D.  1470,  by  order  of  '  Giovanni 
(?)  Bentivoglio,  Signore  della  Citta.'  The  author, 
Francesco  Cieco  of  Florence,  writes  his  204  octaves 
in  rather  rude  and  rustic  Italian.  He  enters  into  the 
minutest  details  concerning  the  sport ;  he  describes 
the  Piazza  and  the  stockades  with  which  it  was 
provided  ;  he  records  the  various  cities  that  supplied 
combatants ;  he  relates  how  on  one  side  the  Benti- 
voglio chose  60  knights,  whilst  as  many  were 
opposed  to  them  by  Antonio  Trotti  di  Alessan- 
dria, Capitano  dei  Bolognesi ;  he  names  the  com- 
batants ;  he  notes  the  various  modes  of  weapons, 
the  harness,  and  the  devices  of  the  cavaliers,  together 
with  the  ornaments  of  the  fair  dames,  whose  beauties 
he  compares  with  the  most  famous  charmers  of 
antiquity  ;  he  narrates  the  order  of  the  several  gests, 
and  finally  he  leaves  the  victory  with  the  '  parte 
Bentivolesca.'  This  famous  tournament  was  also 
described  by  Giovanni  Sabbattino  degli  Ariendi 
(See  Giordani's  '  Almanacco  Storico-Archeologico 
Bolognese,'  1836;  and  Antonio  Bertolini's  'Eccita- 
mento,'  November,  1838,  p.  685). 

The  Bolognese  copy  of  Francesco  Cieco,  a 
small  quarto,  wants  frontispiece,  pagination,  and 
index :  the  experts  remember  that  about  1470  the 


printing-press  was  introduced  into  Bologna  by 
Baldazzarre  Azzoguidi,  and,  remarking  that  the  types 
are  those  adopted  by  this  artist  in  his  edition  of 
Ovid  (A.D.  1471),  they  have  concluded  that  the  poem 
was  printed  in  the  early  part  of  the  same  year,  or 
shortly  after  the  tournament  was  held.  Prudential 
reasons  may  be  attributed  to  the  suppression  of  the 
printer's  name. 

I  here  end  my  study  of  the  venerable  ex-capital 
of  Northern  Etruria,  with  the  hope  that  readers 
will  take  kindly  into  consideration  the  circumstances 
under  which  it  was  written. 

WATSON'S  HOTEL,  BOMBAY  :  Feb.  15,  1876. 


Resume  of  a  Letter  addressed  to  Signor  W.  Helbig,  by  Cav. 
A.  Zannoni,  upon  the  bronze  articles  supposed  to  be  razors 
(printed  by  the  Bullettino  dell*  Institute  di  Corrispondenza 
Archeologica,  anno  1875.  Roma:  coi  tipi  del  Salviucci,  a 
Spese  deir  Institute),  1875. 

You  ask  me  in  yours  of  the  iQth  inst.  two  questions  : 

1.  Have  the  supposed  razors  been  found  in  the  Felsina 
Necropolis  ? 

2.  If  so,  what  objects  accompanied  them,  or,  to  be  more 
precise,  did  these  implements  occur  together  with  pottery  and 
bronzes  of  the  primitive  type,  as,  e.g.,  those  of  Villanova, 
or  were  they  discovered  with  painted  pottery  and  historical 
subjects  in  black  and  red  ? 

Before  answering  you,  allow  me  to  submit  an  outline 
of  my  discoveries  in  the  Certosa  diggings  (1869). 

I  first  found  the  four  groups,  numbering  more  than 
400  sepulchres  ;  the  great  series  of  figured  pottery,  black 
and  red  ;  the  unique  bronze  situla  ;  the  many-figured 
steles,  and  the  first  specimen  of  Etruscan  writing.  The 
Certosa  is,  therefore,  one  great  period  in  the  life  of 
Felsina,  '  prince  of  Etruria.' 

But,  as  was  pointed  out  in  my  report  of  October  2,  1871, 
at  the  opening  of  the  '  Museo  Civico,'  the  Certosa  'finds' 
no  longer  form  thfe  isolated  discovery  from  which  I  had 
deduced  that,  between  our  old  monastery  and  Bologna,  ran 


a  highway,  with  tombs  grouped  to  the  right  and  to  the  left, 
showing  several  and  successive  epochs — in  fact,  the  develop- 
ment of  Felsinean  life.  It  appeared  to  me  certain  that 
the  earlier  inhabitants  would  have  pushed  forward  their 
cemeteries  from  the  limits  of  population,  which,  as  my 
discoveries  in  the  Strada  Pratello  prove,  represents  a  part 
of  the  modern  city ;  and  this,  too,  not  only  westward,  but 
to  the  other  cardinal  points.  Evidently  the  citizens, 
increasing  in  numbers  and  subject  to  social  and  political 
changes,  would  deposit  their  dead  in  several  and  distinct 
groups  along  the  road,  at  increased  distances  of  a  hundred 
yards  or  so  ;  sometimes  above,  at  other  times  around,  those 
which  preceded  them.  And  therefore  I  expected  to  find 
at  least  ten  roadside  groups  between  the  two  extreme 
points,  Bologna  and  the  Certosa. 

The  fact  of  eight  such  groups  coming  to  light  have 
proved  my  conjecture  to  be  correct.  Besides  the  four  in 
the  Certosa  proper,  1869,  I  discovered  to  the  eastward — 
that  is,  in  the  direction  of  Felsina — two  more,  below  the 
Arnoaldi  property  (end  of  September  1871);  a  seventh, 
distributed  under  the  Arnoaldi-Tagliavini  farms  and 
the  Certosa  lane ;  and,  finally,  an  eighth  (mid-August 
1872),  in  the  Benacci  estate. 

The  Tagliavini  find  demanded  fresh  researches  in 
the  contiguous  Arnoaldi  property,  which  presently  yielded 
another  group.  The  first,  of  thirty-six  sepulchres,  pro- 
duced very  few  figured  vases,  with  red  pottery,  fibiilcs  of 
bronze  and  silver,  and  the  remains  of  two  cists.  There 
were  some  sculptured  steles,  far  inferior  in  splendour  to 
those  of  the  Certosa,  but  two  had  an  especial  value,  on 
account  of  their  Etruscan  inscriptions.  This  group,  there- 
fore, has  the  characteristics,  without,  however,  the  im- 
portance, of  the  four  which  compose  the  Certosa  find. 

The   sixth   group    (Tagliavini    property)  produced,  as 


first-fruits,  four  sepulchres,  containing  three  skeletons,  with 
brown  and  red  earthenware,  and  a  dolium  worked  in 
bands :  its  contents  were  burnt  bones,  silver  fibula,  and  a 
bronze  knife.  But  it  was  a  spark  that  kindled  a  mighty 
flame.  The  adjacent  Arnoaldi  diggings,  begun  in  early 
December  1872,  were  continued  till  the  end  of  June  1874, 
and  have  already  yielded  150  tombs.  Here  we  gathered, 
besides  the  brown  and  ruddy  earthenware,  a  rich  harvest 
of  pottery  with  graffiti  geometrically  worked  in  a  large 
and  grandiose  manner,  and  not  wanting  the  usual  ducks, 
the  doves,  and  even  the  monkey ;  a  great  variety  of 
bronzes,  such  as  fibula,  and  utensils,  situla,  cups,  two  cists 
in  repousse-work  with  bands  and  points,  and,  finally,  a 
sculptured  stela  with  resetted  crosses,  resembling  that  of 
Pisaro,  consequently,  those  of  the  Certosa. 

During  last  summer  (1874),  the  lane  which  separates 
the  Arnoaldi  and  Tagliavini  diggings,  explored  by  me  at 
the  expense  of  the  municipality,  produced  eighty  most 
important  tombs ;  and  the  axis  of  the  line  apparently 
corresponds  with  that  of  the  cemetery,  which  extends  on 
both  sides  under  the  two  farms.  Here,  more  remarkably 
than  in  No.  2,  Arnoaldi  group,  emerged  the  luminous 
epoch  of  Villanova,  far  richer  sepulchres,  proved  by  the 
engraved  potteries  and  bronze  utensils  ;  two  banded 
cists,  two  others  of  repousse-\vor\z.  with  bands  and  points, 
and  two  with  representations  of  quadrupeds  like  the  far- 
famed  situla  of  the  Certosa,  not  to  speak  of  the  number 
and  beauty  of  the  situla,  the  large  bronze  pins,  the  bronze 
vases,  and  the  utensils  whose  forms  show  remarkable 

The  other  Arnoaldi  group  (our  No.  7)  has  yielded 
hitherto  sixteen  sepulchres,  identical  with  those  of  the 
Certosa  ;  a  large  oxybaphon,  a  few  other  red-figured 
potteries,  also  in  the  style  of  what  we  found  at  the 


monastery  ;  a  stela  and  the  fragment  of  a  second  with  a 
bit  of  inscription. 

But  the  history  of  Felsina  returns  to  its  origin  in  the 
vast  Benacci  group,  discovered  in  September  1873.  Here 
300  tombs  show  four  epochs  distinctly  marked  by  their 
stratification,  namely  : — i.  An  age  preceding  Villanova 
(Pelasgian  ? ) ;  2.  The  first  era  of  Villanova  (Umbrian  ?) ; 
3.  Gallic ;  and  4.  Roman. 

The  pre-Villanovan  epoch  appears  splendidly  in  the 
five  sepulchres,  which  I  will  presently  describe  ;  in  earthen- 
ware with  peculiar  graffiti,  and  in  special  bronzes  for 
utensils,  arms,  and  ornaments. 

And  now  comes  the  first  Villanovan  age,  with  some  en- 
graved potteries  and  others  whose  type  has  not  hitherto  ap- 
peared ;  with  an  extraordinary  quantity  and  variety  of  fibula, 
armillcz,  and  bronze  pins ;  with  bronze  vases,  amongst 
which  six  are  banded,  some  are  worked  with  repousse 
points,  and  one  cist,  festooned  in  repousse,  bears  little  geese 
like  those  stamped  on  the  earthenware.  The  so-called 
tintinnabula  yielded  by  Villanova  here  appeared  in  greater 
numbers  ;  they  are  evidently  not  bells,  but  articles  of  toilette. 

The  Gallic  epoch  has  offered  various  very  long  sword- 
blades,  like  those  from  the  tumuli  of  Magny-Lambert ; 
and  bronze  vases  resembling  the  discoveries  of  Upper 
Alsace  ('  Aus'm  Werth  der  Grabfund  von  Wald-Algesheim ' ; 
Bonn,  1870).  For  our  present  purpose  I  need  not  note  the 
Roman  age. 

Here,  then,  are  the  successive  peoples  and  life-periods 
of  Felsina — Pelasgic,  Umbrian,  Etruscan,  Gallic,  and, 
finally,  Roman.  The  lower  Benacci  group  shows  the  pre- 
Villanovan  (Pelasgic  ?)  and  the  early  Villanovan  age.  The 
Arnoaldi-Tagliavini  and  the  Certosa  lane  record  the 
luminous  epoch  of  the  later  Villanova ;  the  second  stra- 
tum proves  the  influence  of  the  coming  age,  gradually 


deteriorating  in  the  first  Arnoaldi  group.  In  the 
third  it  again  rises,  and  it  culminates  in  the  four  Certosa 

After  this  sketch  of  my  discoveries,  I  proceed  to  your 
questions  concerning  the  so-called  '  razors '  ;  and  let  me 
at  once  state  that  the  obtuseness  of  the  edge,  and  the 
small  size  of  the  articles,  forbid  our  attributing  such  use  to 

These  lunated  articles  were  found  only  in  one  part  of 
the  Certosa,  the  Campo  degli  Spedali,  scattered  over  the, 
sub-surface  ;  none  appeared  in  seven  of  the  groups :  the 
four  Certosan  (proper),  the  two  Arnoaldi  ;  and  the  Ar- 
noaldi-Tagliavini  and  Certosa  lane.  The  Benacci  diggings, 
however,  yielded  '  razors'  in  nine  tombs,  of  which  five 
belonged  to  the  pre-Villanovan  (Pelasgic  ?),  and  four  to 
the  early  Villanovan  epochs.  The  following  is  a  succinct 
description  of  the  articles  and  their  accompaniments. 

Of  the  four  early  Villanovan  tombs  which  yielded  'razors,' 
No.  i  was  a  square  fosse  (o'/o  metre  x  070  metre),  contain- 
ing the  large  cinerary  urn  of  Villanovan  type,  with  burnt 
bones,  covered  with  its  cup  ;  to  the  northwards  were  some 
small  brown  and  red  pots,  one  of  them  engraved  round  the 
rim  with  a  zig-zag  ornament,  and  with  horizontal  channellings 
from  mid-belly  to  bottom.  A  three-barbed  fibula  of  bronze 
and  the  '  razor '  were  found  with  the  bones. 

No.  2  fosse  was  somewhat  larger  (roo  metre  x  roo 
metre)  ;  to  the  east  stood  the  great  ossuary  (same  type), 
with  engraved  fibula,  pins,  and  fragments  of  armillcz,  all  of 
bronze  ;  westward  lay  some  smaller  brown  pots  ;  and  a 
terra-cotta  cist  with  bands  still  stood  upright.  The  'razor' 
lay  flat  in  the  middle  of  the  western  side.  It  is  not  plain, 
each  face  has  three  zones  cut  parallel  with  the  blade-back  ; 

1  NOTE  BY  THE  TRANSLATOR. — After  seeing  the  Chinese  blades, 
little  hatchets,  I  cannot  attach  importance  to  either  of  these  objections. 


the  uppermost  is  straight,  the  central  is  a  zig-zag,  and  the 
lowest  is  in  short  and  parallel  perpendicular  lines. 

No.  3  fosse  was  of  the  same  size  as  the  second.  The 
ossuary  (same  type)  was  subtended  northwards  and  south- 
wards by  brown  and  reddish  pots  ;  there  were  only  traces 
of  bronze  fibula,  and  amongst  the  burnt  bones  lay  the 
'  razor  '  engraved  with  parallel  lines  along  the  back. 

No.  4  was  a  little  smaller  (0*90  metre  x  0*90  metre), 
than  the  two  latter.  The  ossuary  had  its  cup-cover,  and 
near  its  mouth  was  a  three-barred  fibula  like  that  of  No.  I  ; 
westward  lay  a  few  small  vases,  of  which  one  was  zig- 
zagged in  relief  at  the  rim.  Upon  the  burnt  bones  of  the 
ossuary  stood  a  few  engraved  fibula  and  some  bronze 
pins.  Among  the  bones  was  the  '  razor,'  much  oxidised. 

In  these  four  cases,  then,  the  '  razor '  is  always  inside 
the  ossuary ;  it  is  accompanied  by  fibula,  bronze  pins, 
brown  and  red  earthenware,  and  a  few  engraved  potteries. 
It  remains  to  consider  it  in  connection  with  the  pre- 
Villanovan  (Pelasgic  ?)  age. 

No.  i  tomb  was  walled  with  slabs  of  molassa  or  yellowish 
sandstone  ;  the  inside  (i  metre  x  070  metre)  showed  a 
cup-covered  ossuary,  engraved  after  the  Grecian  fashion. 
Upon  the  bones  lay  the  'razor,'  together  with  certain 
twisted  bronze  fibula  of  novel  form,  and  the  last  found 
was  a  very  long  pin,  also  of  bronze. 

No.  2,  similarly  walled,  showed  the  great  ossuary 
opening  to  the  north-west.  It  was  similarly  worked,  and 
covered  with  a  cup,  also  engraved,  upon  which  lay  an 
amber-headed  bronze  pin.  With  the  bones  were  fragments 
of  fibula,  armlets,  and  a  bronze  ligula ;  at  the  southern 
angle  lay  three  small  bronze  rings  ;  and  to  the  north,  on  a 
level  with  the  belly  of  the  ossuary,  stood  the  'razor,' 
worked  with  '  wolves'  teeth '  near  the  blade-back. 

No.  3  was  stopped  by  a  large  pebble,  under  which, 


with  its  mouth  opening  south,  lay  the  main  ossuary,  cup- 
covered  and  adorned  under  the  lips  and  around  the  belly 
with  Grecian  tracery  in  white.  Beneath  this  urn  appeared 
a  pin,  and  to  the  east  a  small  bronze  celt  with  cylindrical 
socket  (a  bossolo  cilindrico).  Little  rings  of  the  same  metal 
lay  below  it.  Mixed  with  the  bones  was  a  ligula,  broken 
into  very  small  bits,  and  two  fibula  with  amber;  finally,  at 
the  bottom  of  the  urn  the  '  razor '  lay  flat,  worked  like  that 
of  No.  2. 

No.  4  tomb  resembled  Nos.  I  and  2,  but  it  was 
much  richer.  A  rectangle  of  roo  metre  x  070  metre, 
its  sandstone  revetment  formed  a  fallen  cover  for  the 
ossuary,  whose  mouth  was  turned  southwards.  Both  it  and 
the  cup  had  large  graffiti  in  the  Greek  style.  Among  the 
bones  were  two  large  bridle-bits  of  bronze,  with  their 
respective  belongings  ;  *  a  pin  and  engraved  fibula.  Near 
the  rim  was  a  little  bronze  paalstab  (axe),  like  those  of 
Scandinavian  type,  and  then  the  '  razor.' 

No.  5  was  covered  with  a  large  revetment  of  sand- 
stone. Underneath  it  stood  the  cup-covered  ossuary 
turned  southwards.  The  burnt  remains  were  accompanied 
by  a  long  cylinder  of  bone,  worked  in  straight  lines  after 
the  Greek  fashion.  To  westward  lay  flat  a  very  large 
and  peculiar  paalstab,  whose  faces  v/ere  engraved  also  after 
the  Greek  way,  with  triple  zones  in  zig-zag  and  with 
toothed  lines.  On  the  south  was  an  unusually  long  pin 
with  amber  under  the  head,  and  near  it  lay  the  '  razor.' 
The  latter  is  peculiar  in  its  greater  size,  in  its  shape,  and 
in  its  ornamentation.  It  is  especially  noteworthy  for  the 
part  between  the  back  and  the  handle ;  and  each  face  is 
engraved  near  the  blade-back  with  Grecian  ornaments  like 
the  paalstab,  the  lowest  being  a  zig-zag  zone. 

1  TRANSLATOR'S  NOTE. — In  the  original  'la  relativa  bardatura,' 
which  means  the  whole  harness  or  equipment  of  the  horse — evidently 
not  intended  here. 


Such,  then,  are  the  five  pre-Villanovan  (Pelasgic  ?) 
sepulchres  containing  the  '  razors.'  The  principal  accom- 
panying objects  are,  as  I  have  shown,  urns  with  large 
graffiti,  celts,  paalstabs,  fibula,  and  pins  differing  from 
those  of  the  early  Villanovan  era. 

Under  different  circumstances  the  '  razors '  were  also 
found  in  three  tombs  explored  by  my  excellent  colleague, 
Awocato  Arsenio  Crespellani  (see  his  paper  '  Di  un  Sepol- 
creto  pre-romano  a  Savignano  sul  Panaro  ; '  Modena,  1874). 
He  discovered  one  adorned  with  '  wolves'  teeth  '  in  a  sepul- 
chre which  has  all  the  characteristics  of  the  Benacci  group, 
of  older  date  than  the  Villanovan  ;  and  the  two  others  in 
tombs  which  belong  to  the  first  Villanovan  epoch. 



A  LBA  Longa,  foundation  of,  161 
•**•     Albanian  language,  the,  164 

Albano  crater,  first  eruption  of  the, 


Aldovrandi  cited,  153 
Alphabet.     See  Etruscan 
Amorini  estate,  discoveries  on  the, 


Ampere,  J.  J.,  cited,  71 

Anthropology.  See  Man,  Palaeon- 
tology, Craniology,  Italy,  Bologna 

Antiquities.     See  Etruscan 

Apennines,  configuration  of  the,  4 

Apuleius  cited,  43 

Aria  collection,  48,  109  ;  villa,  109, 
no,  112 

Arnoaldi  diggings,  95,  266,  267 

Aryan,  derivation  of  the  word,  163 ; 
language,  217 

Aryo-Pelasgi,  emigration  of  the, 
165,  1 68  ;  in  Italy,  169 

Asnie,  Torr  dai,  82 

T)  ACTRIANA,  one  of  the  earliest 

seats  of  civilisation,  164 
Basques,  the,  164 
Bassi,  Ca  di,  tombs  of,  107 
Bedawin,  the,  216 
Bells,   Etruscan,   68 ;   Pagan    and 
Christian,  69 


Benacci  diggings,  93  ;  tombs,  268 

Bianconi,  Prof.  G.  G.,  45,  258 

Birch,  Dr.,  223,  224,  225 

Boccadelli  estate,  intended  exca- 
vations on,  1 06 

Boii,  the,  200 

Bologna,  excavations  in,  3  ;  its  site, 
4,  5  ;  characteristics  of,  6  sq,  ; 
modern  improvements,  7  ;  clubs 
and  newspapers,  8  ;  statue  of 
Neptune  in,  9 ;  mediaeval  and 
modern,  10 ;  its  contadini  and 
aristocracy,  n  ;  University,  12; 
Anthropological  Congress  of  187 1 
noticed,  12,28,45, 72, 85, 122, 123, 
126,  129,  149,  150,  157,  175,  177, 
178,  1 80,  183;  antiquarian  re- 
searches, 14  sq. ;  the  city  of 
Felsina,  18  ;  of  Bononia,  19 ; 
the  Via  Emilia,  20 ;  collections 
of  Etruscan  antiquities,  21  sq.  ; 
museums,  ib. ;  discoveries  near, 
79  sq.  ;  antiquarian  factions,  82  ; 
Tortorelli  excavations,  ib. ;  Pra- 
dello  diggings,  85  ;  scavi  della 
Porta  S.  Mamolo,  88;  della 
Strada  S.  Petronio,  90 ;  of  the 
Certosa  and  Casalecchio,  93  sq.  ; 
ancient  inscriptions,  239  ;  intro- 
duction of  the  printing  press, 




Bolognese,  the  modern  dialect,  242 
sq.  ;  its  classics,  246  sq. ;  pro- 
verbs, 258 

Bonaparte,  Prince  Lucien,  cited, 

Bononia,  ancient  city  of,  19 

Broca,  Dr.  Paul,  his  classification  of 
skulls,  176;  cited,  197,  204,  219 

Brock,  Mr.  E.  W.,  48 

Bronzes,  Etruscan,  33  sq.,  38  sq., 
60,  65  sq.,6j,  71,  160  ;  Cav.  Zan- 
noni  on,  265 

Busk,  Prof.,  cited,  153 

/^ALABRESE  superstition,  35 

Calari,  Signor  P.,  his  discovery 
of  Etruscan  remains,  79 

Calori,  Prof.  L.,  cited,  73,  88,  91, 
1 68,  187,  210,  211  ;  his  craniolo- 
gical  researches,  187  sq.  ;  on  the 
Etruscan  religion,  191 ;  language, 
193  ;  civilisation,  195  ;  general 
conclusions,  208  sq. 

Calvert,  Mr.  F.,  on  the  antiquity  of 
man,  150 

Cantalupo  Mandela,  skulls  from,  179 

Capellini,  Prof.  G.,  cited,  61,  140, 
141  ;  originates  the  Bologna 
Congress,  177  ;  on  cannibal  re- 
mains, ib. 

Casalecchio,  excavations  near,  104. 
See  Certosa 

Cato,  Major,  cited,  18 

Cavedoni,  M.,  cited,  26 

Celts.     See  Kelts 

Ceramic  art,  Etruscan,  219 

Certosa,  excavations  at  the,  22  sq., 
93,  9S,  97;  plan  of,  98,  101, 
265  sq.  ;  antiquity  of,  143 ;  skulls, 
197,204,  210  ;  inscriptions,  234 

Chabas,  M.,  cited,  15 

Chierici,  Abb(5,  cited,  130,  131 

Cieco,  Francesco,  Bolognese  poem 
by,  261 

Conestabile,  Prof.,  cited,  28,  29,  44, 

53,73,  H7,  139 
Corssen,  Prof.,  cited,  194,  228,  231, 


Craniology,    175    sq.  ;    palaeolithic 
and   neolithic    skulls,    175,    176, 
179  ;  skulls  of  the  Bronze  epoch, 
178,  180  ;  of  Villanova  and  Mar- 
zobotto,    1 80   sq.  ;    of    Sardinia, 
184 ;  Oscan   and    Etruscan   cal- 
variae,  185,  186;  Prof.  L.  Calori's 
researches  in,  187  sq. 
Crawford,  Lord,  cited,  39,  224 
Cremation,  Etruscan,  101,  139 
Cyprus,  discoveries  of  General  di 
Cesnola  and  Mr.  Lang  in,  124 

•pvAHOME,  skulls  from,  199 
-^     Davis,   Dr.  J.   B,   185,   186, 

189,  197 

Dawkins,  Mr.  W.  B.,  cited,  153 
De  Jorio,  cited,  53 
De- Lucca,  excavations  of  Cav.  F., 


Dennis,  Mr., his  'Cities  and  Ceme- 
teries of  Western  Etruria,'  cited, 
23,63,91,  118,  120,124,  129,217, 

22O,  222,  226 

De  Rossi,  discoveries  of,  158 
De  Rouge",  M.,  cited,  15 
Desor,  M.,  cited,  131 
Dozza,  Signor  G.,  his  discovery  of, 
Etruscan  remains,  79 

T7LBA,  skulls  from,  178,  180 
Ellis,  Mr.,  cited,  228,  229 
Etruria,  early  settlers  of,    15  sq.  ; 

federations  of,  15,  18, 191 ;  modes 

of  sepulture  in,  17,   141,  172  sq., 

Etruscan  antiquities,  collections  of, 

21    sq.  ;    rings,    cysts,  &c.,   23 



tombstones,  29  sq.  ;  pottery,  32  ; 
bronzes,  33  ;  stone  implements, 
35  ;  cylinders,  36  ;  bone  dice,  39  ; 
toilette  articles,  40  ;  vases,  42  ; 
the  Villanova  collection,  48  sq.  ; 
burial  of  the  dead,  55,  131,  139  ; 
discoveries  on  the  Via  y£milia, 
79  sq. ;  mortuary  feasts,  83 ; 
graffiti,  id.  ;  the  Malvasia  calves, 
84  ;  discoveries  at  Pradello,  85  ; 
the  Mamolo  <  find,'  88  ;  legend 
of  the  Creation,  92  ;  Certosa  and 
Casalecchio,  93  sg.  ;  fosses  at 
the  Certosa,  100  sq.  ;  Marza- 
botto,  109  sq. ;  Misanello,  112; 
funerary  wells,  115  ;  necropolis 
of  Misano,  127  sq.  ;  varieties  of 
sarcophagus,  137  sq.  ;  animal  re- 
mains, 140;  alphabet,  173,  209, 
237  ;  skulls,  175,  187  sq.,  201  ; 
religion,  191  ;  inscriptions,  233 

Etruscan  language,  origin,  theories, 
and  affinities  of,  193,  210  sq. 

Etruscans,  their  first  settlements  in 
Italy,  172  sq.  ;  their  rule,  174 

Euganean  tombstones,  28 ;  lan- 
guage, 194 

Eugano-Veneti,  the,  168 

Eugubine  Tables,  versions  of  the, 

"TJ^ELSINA,  Etruscan  city  of,  3, 
1 8  ;  remains  of,  81,  97  ;  skulls 

of,  205  sq.  ;  necropolis  and  city, 

208  ;  epochs  of,  268 
Frati,  Cav.  L.,  relics  found  by,  97 
Freeman,  Mr.  E.  A.,  cited,  166 

Cav.  A.,  on  Etruscan 
^^     craniology,  182 
Garbiglietti,  Cav.  A.,  cited,  182 


Gellius,  A.,  cited,  43 
Geology  of  Italy.     See  Italy 
Gozzadini,  Count,  his  collection  of 
antiquities,  48  sj. ;  cited,  56,  57, 
60,61,83,85,  89,   no,  in,  114, 
1 1 8,  129,  134,  143,  144,  1 80 
Grasco-Pelasgi,  their  arrival  in  Italy, 

170;  decay  of,  172 
Greville,  Mr.  ('  Memoirs '),  cited,  242 
Grotefend    ('  Zur    Geographic  von 

Alt-Italien  *),  cited,  168 
Guernsey,  catacombs  in,  74 

TTERNICIAN  valley,  the,  159 

Hincks,  Dr.,  cited,  190 
Horace,  cited,  60 
Hunfalvy,  Prof.  P.,  cited,  16,  24 

'  TALY,  rivers  of  Upper,  4 ;  modes 
of  sepulture  of  the  Etruscan 
settlers,  17,  55,  131,  139  ;  geolo- 
gical history  of,  149  sg.  ;  Lower 
Pliocene  epoch,  150;  Diluvial 
epoch,  151  ;  primitive  man,  152 
sg.,  157  ;  Glacial  epoch,  154  ; 
Alluvial  epoch,  155  sg.  ;  eruptive 
eras,  159  sg.  ;  modern  epoch, 
161  ;  immigration  of  the  Lithu- 
ano-Slavs,  168  ;  aborigines,  ib.; 
influx  of  the  Umbrians,  169;  of 
the  Latins,  1 70  ;  of  the  Grasco- 
Pelasgians,  ib.  ;  of  the  Pelasgo- 
Tyrrhenians,  172  ;  of  the  Etrus- 
cans, ib. ;  cannibalism  in,  177  ; 
craniology  of  ancient,  175  sg., 


U VENAL,  cited,  55,  63 

TT'ARNAK  Inscription,  noticed, 
1V     15 






Kelts,  emigration  of  the,  164;  their 

wide  extension,  165 
Kistvaens,  52,  53,  75,  80,  86 

T  ANGUAGE.     See  Etruscan 

Latins,  their  first  appearance 
in  Italy,  170 

Latium,   first   cities   of,    159 ;   vol- 
canoes in,  1 60  sq. 

Liano,   discoveries    near   the    Co- 
mune  di,  81 

Lithuano-Slavs,  emigrations  of  the, 

Livy  cited,  161 

Lotto   Lotti,   Dr.,    his    Bolognese 
works,  246 

Lucretius  cited,  160 

]V /TAIN A,  skulls  of  Torre  della, 

1V1     i 80 

M-alvasia  calves,  the,  84 

Mamolo,  discoveries  near  the  Porta 

a,  88 

Man,  prae-historic  in  Italy,  15,  150, 
ip»  157,  I59>  164,  179;  early 
civilisation  and  emigrations,  164 
sq.  ;  the  Kelts,  ib.  ;  Aryo-Pelasgi, 

165  sq.  •     Scandinavo-Teutons, 

1 66  ;  Lithuano-Slavs,  167  ;  waves 
of  immigration  in  Italy,  168  sq. 

Mandela,  Cantelupo,   skulls   from, 

Mariscotti    estate,   discoveries    on 

the,  80 

Martial  cited,  37,  62,  66 
Marzabotto,   discoveries    at,    109 ; 

prevalence  of  cremation  at,  139  ; 

antiquity  and  Remains  of,   143  ; 

skulls  from,  180,   181,  182,  183  ; 

inscriptions,  238  sq.  • 
Matray,  relief  of,  35 
Misanello,  discoveries  at,  \\2sq.; 


an  Etruscan  house  at,  1 14 ; 
funerary  wells,  115;  temples, 
119,121  ;  aqueduct  of,  123  ;  skele- 
tons, 124;  group  of  Mars  and 
Venus,  125 

Misano,  necropolis  of,  127  sq., 
135  sq.  ;  bronze  weapons,  129; 
thoroughfares,  132  sq. 

Montegazza,  Prof.  P.,  cited,  183 

Mortillet,  Gabrielle  de,  cited,  59, 
131,  144;  on  the  tombs  of  Vil- 
lanova,  73 

Moslems,  mode  of  sepulture  of,  101 

Miiller,  Max,  cited,  7 1 

XTICOLUCCI,  Prof.,  cited,   64, 
^      150,  178,  181,  182,  186 
Niebuhr  cited,  71,  195 
Nunzi,  Camell,   Bolognese   poetry 
of,  256 

r\  VI D,  cited,  55,69 
^     Orioli,  Prof.,  cited,  72 
Owen,  Prof.,  on  the  conformation 
of  the  Egyptian  eye-aperture,  122 

149  ;  the  Romans  not  igno- 
rant of,  152  ;  first  traces  ot 
Italian  man,  153.  See  Italy. 

Palmaria  island,  Pigeon  grot  of, 

Parker,  Mr.  J.  H.,  cited,  71 

Pelasgo-Tyrrhenians  occupy  Italy, 

Pelloutier('Hist.  des  Celtes'),  cited, 

Phoenicians  in  Italy,  194 

Pila,  Monte,  first  eruption  of, 
1 60 




Pliny  cited,  35,  81,  171,  172 
Pontecchio,  remains  in,  80 
Ponzi,  Senator,  cited,  149,  153,  157 
Pradello,  Etruscan  remains  found 

at,  85 
Propertius  cited,  32 

"DAMONTE,  Etruscan  remains 
1V    at,  80 

Religion,  Etruscan,  191  sq. 
Reno,  River,  103,  in 
Rome,  German  myth  theories  con- 
cerning, 71  ;  dialects  in,  250 

CARCOPHAGUS,    varieties    of 

Etruscan,  125,  137 
Sardinia,  ethnography  of,  184,  186 
Scandinavo-Teutons,  emigration  of, 

1 66 
Schio,  Count  G.  da,  cited,  28,  36, 

37,  194 

Sempronius  cited,  18 
Sepulture,  17,55,  I31,  *39,  HI 
Sgarzi,  Prof.,  cited,  34,  57 
Silius  Italicus  cited,  172 
Skulls.     See  Craniology 
Smith,  Mr.  George,  his  discoveries 

in  Assyria,  91,  92 
Sogdiana,  one  of  the  earliest  seats 

of  civilisation,  164 
Spedali,  cemetery  of  Campo  degli, 


Strabo  cited,  171,  172 
Suetonius  cited,  152  sq. 
Suidas  cited,  91,  92 

'pAGLIAVINI  diggings,  266  sq. 
Talon  estate,  explorations  of 
the,  103,  104 

Taylor,  Rev.  I.,  on  Etruscan  tem- 
ples, 119  ;  cited,  195  ;  his  Etrus- 
can Researches,  210  sq 

Temples,  Etruscan,  119  sq.,  121 

Thucydides  cited,  168 


Tignoso,  Monte,  skulls  from,  176 
Tombs,  Etruscan,  22  sq. 
Tortorelli  excavations,  82 
Turanians,  their  creed,  216 
Turscha,  the,  172 

TJMBRIANS,  their  influx  into 
^      Italy,     169;    skulls    of   the, 
198  sq. 

WARRO  cited,  173 

Velsina.     See  Felsina 

Venice,  dialect  in,  250 

Via  vEmilia,  discoveries  on  the, 
79  sq. 

Vibrata  valley,  85 

'Vienna,  La  Liberazione  di,'  Bo- 
lognese  poem,  250 

Villanova  collection  of  remains, 
48  sq. ;  accounts  of,  ib.  ;  tombs 
and  skeletons,  50  sq.,  269  ; 
pottery,  56  ;  ossuaries,  58  ;  clay 
spindles,  59,  70  ;  bronze  articles, 
60, 65, 67,69, 71 ;  toilette  articles, 
62  ;  war  implements,  64  sq. ; 
novacula,  66  ;  tintinnabula,  68  ; 
idol,  ib.  ;  tombs,  72  ;  great  anti- 
quity of,  141;  skulls  from,  180, 
181,  182,  183  ;  inscriptions,  233 

Virgil  cited,  55,  171,  180 

Vogt,  Prof.  Carl,  72,  177,  178,  181, 

VXTELLS,     Etruscan     funerary, 

"V7"ULE,  Colonel,  on  Aryan  ety- 
mology,  223 

T'ANNETTI,  Cav.,  on  Etruscan 

inscriptions,  235 

Zannoni,  Cav.,  his  excavations,  22 
sq.,  97  ;  cited,  39,  46,  87,  88^  127, 
235  ;  on  Etruscan  bronzes,  265  sq. 




muni  mi 
3  3125  00839  2553